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A review of imaging techniques for systems biology.

Kherlopian AR, Song T, Duan Q, Neimark MA, Po MJ, Gohagan JK, Laine AF - BMC Syst Biol (2008)

Bottom Line: During the last decade systems biology has matured into a distinct field and imaging has been increasingly used to enable the interplay of experimental and theoretical biology.In this review, we describe and compare the roles of microscopy, ultrasound, CT (Computed Tomography), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), PET (Positron Emission Tomography), and molecular probes such as quantum dots and nanoshells in systems biology.As a unified application area among these different imaging techniques, examples in cancer targeting are highlighted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ark2010@med.cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a review of imaging techniques and of their utility in system biology. During the last decade systems biology has matured into a distinct field and imaging has been increasingly used to enable the interplay of experimental and theoretical biology. In this review, we describe and compare the roles of microscopy, ultrasound, CT (Computed Tomography), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), PET (Positron Emission Tomography), and molecular probes such as quantum dots and nanoshells in systems biology. As a unified application area among these different imaging techniques, examples in cancer targeting are highlighted.

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Two-photon microscopy of in vivo brain function. (a) Basic mechanism of two-photon fluorescence. (b) Schematic of surgical preparation of exposed cortex, with sealed glass window and microscope objective positioning. Green dot shows location of two-photon fluorescence. (c) Examples of two-photon maps of the vasculature following intravenous injection of dextran-conjugated fluorescein. Black dots and stripes show red blood cell motion. (d) Dual-channel imaging of neuronal (green) and vascular (red) signals: (left) Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 AM calcium sensitive dye stained neurons and (right) transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subpopulation of neurons (mouse supplied by Jeffrey M. Friedman, Rockefeller University, New York) [101]. Texas dextran red is the intravascular tracer in both cases. (e) Three channel imaging of Tg2576 APP Alzheimer's disease mouse model with amyloid-targeting dye (blue), GFP expressing neurons and dendrites (green) and vasculature (red). Adapted from [52] and contributed by Elizabeth Hillman (Columbia University, New York).
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Figure 3: Two-photon microscopy of in vivo brain function. (a) Basic mechanism of two-photon fluorescence. (b) Schematic of surgical preparation of exposed cortex, with sealed glass window and microscope objective positioning. Green dot shows location of two-photon fluorescence. (c) Examples of two-photon maps of the vasculature following intravenous injection of dextran-conjugated fluorescein. Black dots and stripes show red blood cell motion. (d) Dual-channel imaging of neuronal (green) and vascular (red) signals: (left) Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 AM calcium sensitive dye stained neurons and (right) transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subpopulation of neurons (mouse supplied by Jeffrey M. Friedman, Rockefeller University, New York) [101]. Texas dextran red is the intravascular tracer in both cases. (e) Three channel imaging of Tg2576 APP Alzheimer's disease mouse model with amyloid-targeting dye (blue), GFP expressing neurons and dendrites (green) and vasculature (red). Adapted from [52] and contributed by Elizabeth Hillman (Columbia University, New York).

Mentions: The advent of fluorescence microscopy has been a major step forward in the study of living cells. Leveraging the characteristic emissions of excited biological fluorophores, such as fluorescent proteins, it is possible to gain insight on cell structure and function (Figure 2). Following traditional fluorescence microscopy has been the development of multi-photon methods, where fluorophores are excited by two or more photons [35]. Multi-photon absorption is achieved with a single pulsed laser focused to a diffraction-limited spot on the specimen. With higher peak power, there is an increase in probability for multi-photon absorption leading to fluorophore excitation. Two-photon fluorescence is depicted in Figure 3a. To meet the excitation energy in this case, two 800 nm photons are used. One 400 nm photon is of equivalent energy, as can be used in single photon excitation, but with multi-photon methods only the area of the laser focus on the specimen is excited. Due to more focused excitation, there is a lower overall phototoxic effect. Also, as scattering of longer wavelength photons is less, multi-photon methods have deeper penetration when compared to single photon excitation.


A review of imaging techniques for systems biology.

Kherlopian AR, Song T, Duan Q, Neimark MA, Po MJ, Gohagan JK, Laine AF - BMC Syst Biol (2008)

Two-photon microscopy of in vivo brain function. (a) Basic mechanism of two-photon fluorescence. (b) Schematic of surgical preparation of exposed cortex, with sealed glass window and microscope objective positioning. Green dot shows location of two-photon fluorescence. (c) Examples of two-photon maps of the vasculature following intravenous injection of dextran-conjugated fluorescein. Black dots and stripes show red blood cell motion. (d) Dual-channel imaging of neuronal (green) and vascular (red) signals: (left) Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 AM calcium sensitive dye stained neurons and (right) transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subpopulation of neurons (mouse supplied by Jeffrey M. Friedman, Rockefeller University, New York) [101]. Texas dextran red is the intravascular tracer in both cases. (e) Three channel imaging of Tg2576 APP Alzheimer's disease mouse model with amyloid-targeting dye (blue), GFP expressing neurons and dendrites (green) and vasculature (red). Adapted from [52] and contributed by Elizabeth Hillman (Columbia University, New York).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2533300&req=5

Figure 3: Two-photon microscopy of in vivo brain function. (a) Basic mechanism of two-photon fluorescence. (b) Schematic of surgical preparation of exposed cortex, with sealed glass window and microscope objective positioning. Green dot shows location of two-photon fluorescence. (c) Examples of two-photon maps of the vasculature following intravenous injection of dextran-conjugated fluorescein. Black dots and stripes show red blood cell motion. (d) Dual-channel imaging of neuronal (green) and vascular (red) signals: (left) Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 AM calcium sensitive dye stained neurons and (right) transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subpopulation of neurons (mouse supplied by Jeffrey M. Friedman, Rockefeller University, New York) [101]. Texas dextran red is the intravascular tracer in both cases. (e) Three channel imaging of Tg2576 APP Alzheimer's disease mouse model with amyloid-targeting dye (blue), GFP expressing neurons and dendrites (green) and vasculature (red). Adapted from [52] and contributed by Elizabeth Hillman (Columbia University, New York).
Mentions: The advent of fluorescence microscopy has been a major step forward in the study of living cells. Leveraging the characteristic emissions of excited biological fluorophores, such as fluorescent proteins, it is possible to gain insight on cell structure and function (Figure 2). Following traditional fluorescence microscopy has been the development of multi-photon methods, where fluorophores are excited by two or more photons [35]. Multi-photon absorption is achieved with a single pulsed laser focused to a diffraction-limited spot on the specimen. With higher peak power, there is an increase in probability for multi-photon absorption leading to fluorophore excitation. Two-photon fluorescence is depicted in Figure 3a. To meet the excitation energy in this case, two 800 nm photons are used. One 400 nm photon is of equivalent energy, as can be used in single photon excitation, but with multi-photon methods only the area of the laser focus on the specimen is excited. Due to more focused excitation, there is a lower overall phototoxic effect. Also, as scattering of longer wavelength photons is less, multi-photon methods have deeper penetration when compared to single photon excitation.

Bottom Line: During the last decade systems biology has matured into a distinct field and imaging has been increasingly used to enable the interplay of experimental and theoretical biology.In this review, we describe and compare the roles of microscopy, ultrasound, CT (Computed Tomography), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), PET (Positron Emission Tomography), and molecular probes such as quantum dots and nanoshells in systems biology.As a unified application area among these different imaging techniques, examples in cancer targeting are highlighted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ark2010@med.cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a review of imaging techniques and of their utility in system biology. During the last decade systems biology has matured into a distinct field and imaging has been increasingly used to enable the interplay of experimental and theoretical biology. In this review, we describe and compare the roles of microscopy, ultrasound, CT (Computed Tomography), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), PET (Positron Emission Tomography), and molecular probes such as quantum dots and nanoshells in systems biology. As a unified application area among these different imaging techniques, examples in cancer targeting are highlighted.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus