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Comparison of pharmacopuncture, aquapuncture and acepromazine for sedation of horses.

Luna SP, Angeli AL, Ferreira CL, Lettry V, Scognamillo-Szabó M - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2008)

Bottom Line: Pharmacopuncture, the injection of subclinical doses of drugs into acupoints reduces drug undesirable side effects, residues in animal consumption products and treatment costs in large animals.Previous studies with the injection of 1/10 of Acp dose in dog acupoints showed its advantage for sedation, minimizing undesirable effects.Only the group treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp s.c. had significantly lower values of head height at 30 min.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University 18618-000 Botucatu, SP, Brazil and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Uberlândia Federal University CEP 38.400-902, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Pharmacopuncture, the injection of subclinical doses of drugs into acupoints reduces drug undesirable side effects, residues in animal consumption products and treatment costs in large animals. Acepromazine (Acp) produces several undesirable effects, such as hypotension. Previous studies with the injection of 1/10 of Acp dose in dog acupoints showed its advantage for sedation, minimizing undesirable effects. Eight horses were randomly submitted to four different treatment protocols according to a Latin Square double-blind design: (i) 0.1 ml kg(-1) of saline subcutaneously injected at the cervical region, (ii) 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp injected subcutaneously at the cervical region, (iii) 0.01 ml kg(-1) of saline injected into GV1 acupoint (aquapuncture) and (iv) 0.01 mg kg(-1) of Acp injected into GV1 acupoint (pharmacopuncture). Heart rate, respiratory rate, head height and degree of sedation were measured before and at 30, 60 and 90 min after treatments. Signs of sedation were observed in all treated groups at 30 min and only in 1/10Acp-GV1 at 60 min after the treatments. Only the group treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp s.c. had significantly lower values of head height at 30 min. Respiratory rate tended to reduce in all groups but was significantly lower only in horses treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp s.c. Heart rate remained unchanged in all groups. Acp-pharmacopuncture on GV1 in horses produced a mild sedation when compared with the conventional dose of Acp. More investigations are necessary to determine the optimal dosage of Acp-pharmacopuncture for sedation in horses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pharmacopuncture and sedation score in horses. Mean ± SEM of sedation score of horses treated with saline (C, 0.01 ml kg−1 of saline s.c., n = 8), acepromazine (Acp, 0.1 mg kg−1 of Acp s.c., n = 8), aquapuncture (Sal-GV1, 0.01 ml kg−1 of saline in GV1, n = 8) or pharmacopuncture (1/10 Acp-GV1, 0.01 mg kg−1 of Acp in GV1, n = 8). #P < 0.05 compared with the basal value (ANOVA, followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test).
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Figure 2: Pharmacopuncture and sedation score in horses. Mean ± SEM of sedation score of horses treated with saline (C, 0.01 ml kg−1 of saline s.c., n = 8), acepromazine (Acp, 0.1 mg kg−1 of Acp s.c., n = 8), aquapuncture (Sal-GV1, 0.01 ml kg−1 of saline in GV1, n = 8) or pharmacopuncture (1/10 Acp-GV1, 0.01 mg kg−1 of Acp in GV1, n = 8). #P < 0.05 compared with the basal value (ANOVA, followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test).

Mentions: Sedation was observed both in Acp and 1/10Acp-GV1-treated horses at 30 min when compared with basal values. However, only the 1/10Acp-GV1 group showed sedation at 60 min after treatment, when compared with C (Fig. 1). Signs of sedation were not observed in C and Sal-GV1 when compared with the basal value (Fig. 2).Figure 1.


Comparison of pharmacopuncture, aquapuncture and acepromazine for sedation of horses.

Luna SP, Angeli AL, Ferreira CL, Lettry V, Scognamillo-Szabó M - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2008)

Pharmacopuncture and sedation score in horses. Mean ± SEM of sedation score of horses treated with saline (C, 0.01 ml kg−1 of saline s.c., n = 8), acepromazine (Acp, 0.1 mg kg−1 of Acp s.c., n = 8), aquapuncture (Sal-GV1, 0.01 ml kg−1 of saline in GV1, n = 8) or pharmacopuncture (1/10 Acp-GV1, 0.01 mg kg−1 of Acp in GV1, n = 8). #P < 0.05 compared with the basal value (ANOVA, followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2529381&req=5

Figure 2: Pharmacopuncture and sedation score in horses. Mean ± SEM of sedation score of horses treated with saline (C, 0.01 ml kg−1 of saline s.c., n = 8), acepromazine (Acp, 0.1 mg kg−1 of Acp s.c., n = 8), aquapuncture (Sal-GV1, 0.01 ml kg−1 of saline in GV1, n = 8) or pharmacopuncture (1/10 Acp-GV1, 0.01 mg kg−1 of Acp in GV1, n = 8). #P < 0.05 compared with the basal value (ANOVA, followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test).
Mentions: Sedation was observed both in Acp and 1/10Acp-GV1-treated horses at 30 min when compared with basal values. However, only the 1/10Acp-GV1 group showed sedation at 60 min after treatment, when compared with C (Fig. 1). Signs of sedation were not observed in C and Sal-GV1 when compared with the basal value (Fig. 2).Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Pharmacopuncture, the injection of subclinical doses of drugs into acupoints reduces drug undesirable side effects, residues in animal consumption products and treatment costs in large animals.Previous studies with the injection of 1/10 of Acp dose in dog acupoints showed its advantage for sedation, minimizing undesirable effects.Only the group treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp s.c. had significantly lower values of head height at 30 min.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University 18618-000 Botucatu, SP, Brazil and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Uberlândia Federal University CEP 38.400-902, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Pharmacopuncture, the injection of subclinical doses of drugs into acupoints reduces drug undesirable side effects, residues in animal consumption products and treatment costs in large animals. Acepromazine (Acp) produces several undesirable effects, such as hypotension. Previous studies with the injection of 1/10 of Acp dose in dog acupoints showed its advantage for sedation, minimizing undesirable effects. Eight horses were randomly submitted to four different treatment protocols according to a Latin Square double-blind design: (i) 0.1 ml kg(-1) of saline subcutaneously injected at the cervical region, (ii) 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp injected subcutaneously at the cervical region, (iii) 0.01 ml kg(-1) of saline injected into GV1 acupoint (aquapuncture) and (iv) 0.01 mg kg(-1) of Acp injected into GV1 acupoint (pharmacopuncture). Heart rate, respiratory rate, head height and degree of sedation were measured before and at 30, 60 and 90 min after treatments. Signs of sedation were observed in all treated groups at 30 min and only in 1/10Acp-GV1 at 60 min after the treatments. Only the group treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp s.c. had significantly lower values of head height at 30 min. Respiratory rate tended to reduce in all groups but was significantly lower only in horses treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp s.c. Heart rate remained unchanged in all groups. Acp-pharmacopuncture on GV1 in horses produced a mild sedation when compared with the conventional dose of Acp. More investigations are necessary to determine the optimal dosage of Acp-pharmacopuncture for sedation in horses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus