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Association of smoking and khat (Catha edulis Forsk) use with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006.

Tesfaye F, Byass P, Wall S, Berhane Y, Bonita R - Prev Chronic Dis (2008)

Bottom Line: Consequently, 26.6% of men and 2.4% of women reported practicing one or more of the behaviors.Health promotion interventions should aim to prevent proliferation of such behaviors among young people and adoption by women.Surveillance for risk factors for cardiovascular disease should be implemented nationwide to provide information for policy decisions and to guide prevention and control programs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 11490, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ttfikru@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We assessed the prevalence of substance use and its association with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Methods: We employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. The World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance of risk factors for chronic diseases was applied on a probabilistic sample of 4001 men and women aged 25 to 64 years in Addis Ababa. We determined the prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing. We measured blood pressure by using a digital device and determined mean levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Results: Smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and chewing khat were widely prevalent among men. Among men, the prevalence of current daily smoking was 11.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5%-12.5%). Binge drinking of alcohol was reported by 10.4% (95% CI, 9.0%-11.9%) of men. Similarly, 15.9% (95% CI, 14.1%-17.6%) of men regularly chewed khat. Consequently, 26.6% of men and 2.4% of women reported practicing one or more of the behaviors. Current daily smoking and regular khat chewing were significantly associated with elevated mean diastolic blood pressure (beta = 2.1, P = .03 and beta = 1.9, P = .02, respectively).

Conclusion: Cigarette smoking and khat chewing among men in Addis Ababa were associated with high blood pressure, an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Health promotion interventions should aim to prevent proliferation of such behaviors among young people and adoption by women. Surveillance for risk factors for cardiovascular disease should be implemented nationwide to provide information for policy decisions and to guide prevention and control programs.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Intersection of risk factors among men surveyed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, December 2006. Relative area of the circles is proportional to the prevalence of the corresponding behavior and the total area of the square, which represents 100% of men.
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Figure 1: Intersection of risk factors among men surveyed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, December 2006. Relative area of the circles is proportional to the prevalence of the corresponding behavior and the total area of the square, which represents 100% of men.

Mentions: The intersection between current smoking and khat chewing (8.0%) was higher than that between khat chewing and binge drinking (4.2%) or between current smoking and binge drinking (3.6%) (Figure). The proportion of participants indulging in 2 or more of the 3 behaviors (13.4%) was much higher than would be expected if behaviors were chosen independently.


Association of smoking and khat (Catha edulis Forsk) use with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006.

Tesfaye F, Byass P, Wall S, Berhane Y, Bonita R - Prev Chronic Dis (2008)

Intersection of risk factors among men surveyed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, December 2006. Relative area of the circles is proportional to the prevalence of the corresponding behavior and the total area of the square, which represents 100% of men.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2483558&req=5

Figure 1: Intersection of risk factors among men surveyed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, December 2006. Relative area of the circles is proportional to the prevalence of the corresponding behavior and the total area of the square, which represents 100% of men.
Mentions: The intersection between current smoking and khat chewing (8.0%) was higher than that between khat chewing and binge drinking (4.2%) or between current smoking and binge drinking (3.6%) (Figure). The proportion of participants indulging in 2 or more of the 3 behaviors (13.4%) was much higher than would be expected if behaviors were chosen independently.

Bottom Line: Consequently, 26.6% of men and 2.4% of women reported practicing one or more of the behaviors.Health promotion interventions should aim to prevent proliferation of such behaviors among young people and adoption by women.Surveillance for risk factors for cardiovascular disease should be implemented nationwide to provide information for policy decisions and to guide prevention and control programs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 11490, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ttfikru@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We assessed the prevalence of substance use and its association with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Methods: We employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. The World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance of risk factors for chronic diseases was applied on a probabilistic sample of 4001 men and women aged 25 to 64 years in Addis Ababa. We determined the prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing. We measured blood pressure by using a digital device and determined mean levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Results: Smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and chewing khat were widely prevalent among men. Among men, the prevalence of current daily smoking was 11.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5%-12.5%). Binge drinking of alcohol was reported by 10.4% (95% CI, 9.0%-11.9%) of men. Similarly, 15.9% (95% CI, 14.1%-17.6%) of men regularly chewed khat. Consequently, 26.6% of men and 2.4% of women reported practicing one or more of the behaviors. Current daily smoking and regular khat chewing were significantly associated with elevated mean diastolic blood pressure (beta = 2.1, P = .03 and beta = 1.9, P = .02, respectively).

Conclusion: Cigarette smoking and khat chewing among men in Addis Ababa were associated with high blood pressure, an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Health promotion interventions should aim to prevent proliferation of such behaviors among young people and adoption by women. Surveillance for risk factors for cardiovascular disease should be implemented nationwide to provide information for policy decisions and to guide prevention and control programs.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus