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Cigarette smoking associates with body weight and muscle mass of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional, observational study.

Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou A, Metsios GS, Panoulas VF, Douglas KM, Nevill AM, Jamurtas AZ, Kita M, Koutedakis Y, Kitas GD - Arthritis Res. Ther. (2008)

Bottom Line: FFM did not differ between groups.Finally, current smokers had a significantly smaller waist circumference compared with ex-smokers only (mean difference: male: -6.2, 95% CI: -10.4 to -1.9; female: -7.8, 95% CI: -13.5 to -2.1).Pack-years were inversely correlated with BF (r = -0.46; P < 0.001), and heavy smokers exhibited a significantly lower FFM (P < 0.05) compared with all other participants.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Sport, Performing Arts & Leisure, Wolverhampton University, Gorway Road, Walsall, WS1 3BD, West Midlands, UK. as@wlv.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with altered metabolism leading to muscle wasting. In the general population, cigarette smoking is known to affect body composition by reducing fat and inhibiting muscle synthesis. Even though smoking has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of RA, its possible effects on body composition of such patients have not been studied. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify potential associations of smoking with body weight and composition of RA patients.

Methods: A total of 392 patients (290 females) with RA were assessed for body mass index (BMI), body fat (BF), fat-free mass (FFM), and waist circumference. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, Disease Activity Score-28, and Health Assessment Questionnaire score were used to assess disease activity and severity. Smoking habit (current smoker, ex-smoker, or never-smoker) and intensity (pack-years) were also noted.

Results: Current smokers had a significantly lower BMI compared with ex-smokers (mean difference: male -2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.5 to -1.7; female: -2.6, 95% CI: -4.8 to -0.5) and never-smokers (mean difference: male -1.8, 95% CI: -3 to -0.6; female: -1.4, 95% CI: -2.4 to -0.4). Similarly, the BF of current smokers was lower compared with that of ex-smokers (mean difference: male: -4.3, 95% CI: -7.5 to -1.2; female: -3.4, 95% CI: -6.4 to -0.4) and never-smokers (mean difference: male: -3.3, 95% CI: -6.3 to -0.4; female: -2.1, 95% CI: -4 to -0.2). FFM did not differ between groups. Finally, current smokers had a significantly smaller waist circumference compared with ex-smokers only (mean difference: male: -6.2, 95% CI: -10.4 to -1.9; female: -7.8, 95% CI: -13.5 to -2.1). Following adjustments for age, disease duration, and HAQ score, smoking remained a significant predictor for BMI (P < 0.001), BF (P < 0.05), and waist circumference (P < 0.05). Pack-years were inversely correlated with BF (r = -0.46; P < 0.001), and heavy smokers exhibited a significantly lower FFM (P < 0.05) compared with all other participants.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of a cross-sectional study, it appears that cigarette smoking associates with reduced BMI and BF in patients with RA and heavy smoking associates with lower muscle mass. Smoking cessation appears to associate with increased BMI, BF, and waist circumference in these patients. These results should be confirmed in prospective studies. Given the numerous adverse effects of smoking on general health and RA, patients should be actively advised against it. However, smoking cessation regimes in RA may need to include more general lifestyle counselling, particularly about weight control.

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Prevalence of overweight and obesity, increased waist circumference, and low fat-free mass in smoking groups. (a) Prevalence of overweight and obesity based on rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-specific body mass index for current, ex-, and never-smokers. (b) Prevalence of overweight and obesity based on body fat for current, ex-, and never-smokers. (c) Prevalence of high risk based on waist circumference for current, ex-, and never-smokers. (d) Prevalence of low fat-free mass for current, ex-, and never-smokers. Chi-square analyses identified significant defences among smoking groups for prevalence of (a) overweight and obesity based on body mass index (P < 0.05), (b) overweight and obesity based on body fat (P < 0.05), and (c) increased waist circumference (P < 0.05). Prevalence of low fat-free mass did not differ between groups (P > 0.05).
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Figure 2: Prevalence of overweight and obesity, increased waist circumference, and low fat-free mass in smoking groups. (a) Prevalence of overweight and obesity based on rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-specific body mass index for current, ex-, and never-smokers. (b) Prevalence of overweight and obesity based on body fat for current, ex-, and never-smokers. (c) Prevalence of high risk based on waist circumference for current, ex-, and never-smokers. (d) Prevalence of low fat-free mass for current, ex-, and never-smokers. Chi-square analyses identified significant defences among smoking groups for prevalence of (a) overweight and obesity based on body mass index (P < 0.05), (b) overweight and obesity based on body fat (P < 0.05), and (c) increased waist circumference (P < 0.05). Prevalence of low fat-free mass did not differ between groups (P > 0.05).

Mentions: Following BMI and BF grouping, chi-square analyses showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among smoking groups, with obesity being more prevalent in ex-smokers (50%) followed by never-smokers (39%) and current smokers (30%). Similarly, ex-smokers had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of increased waist circumference (69%) compared with never-smokers (60%) and current smokers (49%). However, FFM did not differ between groups (P > 0.05) (Figure 2).


Cigarette smoking associates with body weight and muscle mass of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional, observational study.

Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou A, Metsios GS, Panoulas VF, Douglas KM, Nevill AM, Jamurtas AZ, Kita M, Koutedakis Y, Kitas GD - Arthritis Res. Ther. (2008)

Prevalence of overweight and obesity, increased waist circumference, and low fat-free mass in smoking groups. (a) Prevalence of overweight and obesity based on rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-specific body mass index for current, ex-, and never-smokers. (b) Prevalence of overweight and obesity based on body fat for current, ex-, and never-smokers. (c) Prevalence of high risk based on waist circumference for current, ex-, and never-smokers. (d) Prevalence of low fat-free mass for current, ex-, and never-smokers. Chi-square analyses identified significant defences among smoking groups for prevalence of (a) overweight and obesity based on body mass index (P < 0.05), (b) overweight and obesity based on body fat (P < 0.05), and (c) increased waist circumference (P < 0.05). Prevalence of low fat-free mass did not differ between groups (P > 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2483449&req=5

Figure 2: Prevalence of overweight and obesity, increased waist circumference, and low fat-free mass in smoking groups. (a) Prevalence of overweight and obesity based on rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-specific body mass index for current, ex-, and never-smokers. (b) Prevalence of overweight and obesity based on body fat for current, ex-, and never-smokers. (c) Prevalence of high risk based on waist circumference for current, ex-, and never-smokers. (d) Prevalence of low fat-free mass for current, ex-, and never-smokers. Chi-square analyses identified significant defences among smoking groups for prevalence of (a) overweight and obesity based on body mass index (P < 0.05), (b) overweight and obesity based on body fat (P < 0.05), and (c) increased waist circumference (P < 0.05). Prevalence of low fat-free mass did not differ between groups (P > 0.05).
Mentions: Following BMI and BF grouping, chi-square analyses showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among smoking groups, with obesity being more prevalent in ex-smokers (50%) followed by never-smokers (39%) and current smokers (30%). Similarly, ex-smokers had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of increased waist circumference (69%) compared with never-smokers (60%) and current smokers (49%). However, FFM did not differ between groups (P > 0.05) (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: FFM did not differ between groups.Finally, current smokers had a significantly smaller waist circumference compared with ex-smokers only (mean difference: male: -6.2, 95% CI: -10.4 to -1.9; female: -7.8, 95% CI: -13.5 to -2.1).Pack-years were inversely correlated with BF (r = -0.46; P < 0.001), and heavy smokers exhibited a significantly lower FFM (P < 0.05) compared with all other participants.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Sport, Performing Arts & Leisure, Wolverhampton University, Gorway Road, Walsall, WS1 3BD, West Midlands, UK. as@wlv.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with altered metabolism leading to muscle wasting. In the general population, cigarette smoking is known to affect body composition by reducing fat and inhibiting muscle synthesis. Even though smoking has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of RA, its possible effects on body composition of such patients have not been studied. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify potential associations of smoking with body weight and composition of RA patients.

Methods: A total of 392 patients (290 females) with RA were assessed for body mass index (BMI), body fat (BF), fat-free mass (FFM), and waist circumference. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, Disease Activity Score-28, and Health Assessment Questionnaire score were used to assess disease activity and severity. Smoking habit (current smoker, ex-smoker, or never-smoker) and intensity (pack-years) were also noted.

Results: Current smokers had a significantly lower BMI compared with ex-smokers (mean difference: male -2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.5 to -1.7; female: -2.6, 95% CI: -4.8 to -0.5) and never-smokers (mean difference: male -1.8, 95% CI: -3 to -0.6; female: -1.4, 95% CI: -2.4 to -0.4). Similarly, the BF of current smokers was lower compared with that of ex-smokers (mean difference: male: -4.3, 95% CI: -7.5 to -1.2; female: -3.4, 95% CI: -6.4 to -0.4) and never-smokers (mean difference: male: -3.3, 95% CI: -6.3 to -0.4; female: -2.1, 95% CI: -4 to -0.2). FFM did not differ between groups. Finally, current smokers had a significantly smaller waist circumference compared with ex-smokers only (mean difference: male: -6.2, 95% CI: -10.4 to -1.9; female: -7.8, 95% CI: -13.5 to -2.1). Following adjustments for age, disease duration, and HAQ score, smoking remained a significant predictor for BMI (P < 0.001), BF (P < 0.05), and waist circumference (P < 0.05). Pack-years were inversely correlated with BF (r = -0.46; P < 0.001), and heavy smokers exhibited a significantly lower FFM (P < 0.05) compared with all other participants.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of a cross-sectional study, it appears that cigarette smoking associates with reduced BMI and BF in patients with RA and heavy smoking associates with lower muscle mass. Smoking cessation appears to associate with increased BMI, BF, and waist circumference in these patients. These results should be confirmed in prospective studies. Given the numerous adverse effects of smoking on general health and RA, patients should be actively advised against it. However, smoking cessation regimes in RA may need to include more general lifestyle counselling, particularly about weight control.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus