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Relative crystallinity of plant biomass: studies on assembly, adaptation and acclimation.

Harris D, DeBolt S - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: Within this study, RCI correlated positively with leaf geometric constraints and with mass per unit area, suggestive of allometry.Further, in etiolated pea hypocotyls, RCI values also decreased compared to plants that were grown in light, consistent with alterations in FTIR cellulose fingerprint peaks and live cell imaging experiments revealing rapid orientation of the YFP::cellulose synthase-6 array in response to light.Herein, results and technical challenges associated with the structure of the cell wall that gives rise to sample crystallinity are presented and examined with respect to adaptation, acclimation and assembly in ecosystem-level processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Plant biomechanical design is central to cell shape, morphogenesis, reproductive performance and protection against environmental and mechanical stress. The cell wall forms the central load bearing support structure for plant design, yet a mechanistic understanding of its synthesis is incomplete. A key tool for studying the structure of cellulose polymorphs has been x-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Relative crystallinity index (RCI) is based on the x-ray diffraction characteristics of two signature peaks and we used this technique to probe plant assembly, adaptation and acclimation. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the dynamics of cellulose synthase in transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a homozygous YFP::CESA6. Assembly: RCI values for stems and roots were indistinguishable but leaves had 23.4 and 21.6% lower RCI than stems and roots respectively. Adaptation: over 3-fold variability in RCI was apparent in leaves from 35 plant species spanning Ordovician to Cretaceous periods. Within this study, RCI correlated positively with leaf geometric constraints and with mass per unit area, suggestive of allometry. Acclimation: biomass crystallinity was found to decrease under conditions of thigmomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Further, in etiolated pea hypocotyls, RCI values also decreased compared to plants that were grown in light, consistent with alterations in FTIR cellulose fingerprint peaks and live cell imaging experiments revealing rapid orientation of the YFP::cellulose synthase-6 array in response to light. Herein, results and technical challenges associated with the structure of the cell wall that gives rise to sample crystallinity are presented and examined with respect to adaptation, acclimation and assembly in ecosystem-level processes.

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Pairwise comparison of foliar traits with RCI (A) RCI versus leaf mass per unit area B) RCI versus leaf length.
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pone-0002897-g004: Pairwise comparison of foliar traits with RCI (A) RCI versus leaf mass per unit area B) RCI versus leaf length.

Mentions: Species analyzed in this by RCI study were correlated against measurements of leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and leaf length. The correlation between RCI and LMA demonstrated the as LMA increased, so did the value for the RCI of the biomass sample (Figure 4A). Individual pairwise analysis of measurements of leaf length with RCI also showed positive correlation between these traits (Figure 4B).


Relative crystallinity of plant biomass: studies on assembly, adaptation and acclimation.

Harris D, DeBolt S - PLoS ONE (2008)

Pairwise comparison of foliar traits with RCI (A) RCI versus leaf mass per unit area B) RCI versus leaf length.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2483349&req=5

pone-0002897-g004: Pairwise comparison of foliar traits with RCI (A) RCI versus leaf mass per unit area B) RCI versus leaf length.
Mentions: Species analyzed in this by RCI study were correlated against measurements of leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and leaf length. The correlation between RCI and LMA demonstrated the as LMA increased, so did the value for the RCI of the biomass sample (Figure 4A). Individual pairwise analysis of measurements of leaf length with RCI also showed positive correlation between these traits (Figure 4B).

Bottom Line: Within this study, RCI correlated positively with leaf geometric constraints and with mass per unit area, suggestive of allometry.Further, in etiolated pea hypocotyls, RCI values also decreased compared to plants that were grown in light, consistent with alterations in FTIR cellulose fingerprint peaks and live cell imaging experiments revealing rapid orientation of the YFP::cellulose synthase-6 array in response to light.Herein, results and technical challenges associated with the structure of the cell wall that gives rise to sample crystallinity are presented and examined with respect to adaptation, acclimation and assembly in ecosystem-level processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Plant biomechanical design is central to cell shape, morphogenesis, reproductive performance and protection against environmental and mechanical stress. The cell wall forms the central load bearing support structure for plant design, yet a mechanistic understanding of its synthesis is incomplete. A key tool for studying the structure of cellulose polymorphs has been x-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Relative crystallinity index (RCI) is based on the x-ray diffraction characteristics of two signature peaks and we used this technique to probe plant assembly, adaptation and acclimation. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the dynamics of cellulose synthase in transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a homozygous YFP::CESA6. Assembly: RCI values for stems and roots were indistinguishable but leaves had 23.4 and 21.6% lower RCI than stems and roots respectively. Adaptation: over 3-fold variability in RCI was apparent in leaves from 35 plant species spanning Ordovician to Cretaceous periods. Within this study, RCI correlated positively with leaf geometric constraints and with mass per unit area, suggestive of allometry. Acclimation: biomass crystallinity was found to decrease under conditions of thigmomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Further, in etiolated pea hypocotyls, RCI values also decreased compared to plants that were grown in light, consistent with alterations in FTIR cellulose fingerprint peaks and live cell imaging experiments revealing rapid orientation of the YFP::cellulose synthase-6 array in response to light. Herein, results and technical challenges associated with the structure of the cell wall that gives rise to sample crystallinity are presented and examined with respect to adaptation, acclimation and assembly in ecosystem-level processes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus