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Relative crystallinity of plant biomass: studies on assembly, adaptation and acclimation.

Harris D, DeBolt S - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: Within this study, RCI correlated positively with leaf geometric constraints and with mass per unit area, suggestive of allometry.Further, in etiolated pea hypocotyls, RCI values also decreased compared to plants that were grown in light, consistent with alterations in FTIR cellulose fingerprint peaks and live cell imaging experiments revealing rapid orientation of the YFP::cellulose synthase-6 array in response to light.Herein, results and technical challenges associated with the structure of the cell wall that gives rise to sample crystallinity are presented and examined with respect to adaptation, acclimation and assembly in ecosystem-level processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Plant biomechanical design is central to cell shape, morphogenesis, reproductive performance and protection against environmental and mechanical stress. The cell wall forms the central load bearing support structure for plant design, yet a mechanistic understanding of its synthesis is incomplete. A key tool for studying the structure of cellulose polymorphs has been x-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Relative crystallinity index (RCI) is based on the x-ray diffraction characteristics of two signature peaks and we used this technique to probe plant assembly, adaptation and acclimation. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the dynamics of cellulose synthase in transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a homozygous YFP::CESA6. Assembly: RCI values for stems and roots were indistinguishable but leaves had 23.4 and 21.6% lower RCI than stems and roots respectively. Adaptation: over 3-fold variability in RCI was apparent in leaves from 35 plant species spanning Ordovician to Cretaceous periods. Within this study, RCI correlated positively with leaf geometric constraints and with mass per unit area, suggestive of allometry. Acclimation: biomass crystallinity was found to decrease under conditions of thigmomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Further, in etiolated pea hypocotyls, RCI values also decreased compared to plants that were grown in light, consistent with alterations in FTIR cellulose fingerprint peaks and live cell imaging experiments revealing rapid orientation of the YFP::cellulose synthase-6 array in response to light. Herein, results and technical challenges associated with the structure of the cell wall that gives rise to sample crystallinity are presented and examined with respect to adaptation, acclimation and assembly in ecosystem-level processes.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

RCI values and their hierarchical cluster dendogram for a foliar samples from diverse range of species indicates a large degree of variability.A) Samples were clustered based on values for their RCI (B).
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pone-0002897-g002: RCI values and their hierarchical cluster dendogram for a foliar samples from diverse range of species indicates a large degree of variability.A) Samples were clustered based on values for their RCI (B).

Mentions: Foliar samples of 35 different plants were collected, oven dried and the RCI measured by XRD (Table 1, Figure 2A and 2B). It was evident that crystallinity measurements varied greatly among species assayed. The grasses had the highest RCI (58.5%) of all species tested and liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha), had the lowest RCI (18.8%). Of a collection of 22 grass species, the range in RCI was determined to be 51.1% to 58.5%, which was higher than leaves from all other species and more similar to values acquired from the stem of Arabidopsis. Other noteworthy observations were the similarity of RCI values for Podocarpus macrophyllus and Araucaria araucana, which are both of the pinophyta phylum. Cycas circinalis (Cycad), Sedum morganianum (Burro tail), Equisetum hyemale (horsetail) and Epiphyllum oxypetalum (Orchid) also displayed a similar RCI value ranging from 37.5 to 41.7%. The carnivorous plant Drosera adelae (lance leaf sundew) measured the second lowest RCI of 31.8%. Indeed, other plants with a similar morphology to the lance leaf sundew but very different metabolism such as Arabidopsis displayed higher RCI values (Table 1, Figure 2).


Relative crystallinity of plant biomass: studies on assembly, adaptation and acclimation.

Harris D, DeBolt S - PLoS ONE (2008)

RCI values and their hierarchical cluster dendogram for a foliar samples from diverse range of species indicates a large degree of variability.A) Samples were clustered based on values for their RCI (B).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2483349&req=5

pone-0002897-g002: RCI values and their hierarchical cluster dendogram for a foliar samples from diverse range of species indicates a large degree of variability.A) Samples were clustered based on values for their RCI (B).
Mentions: Foliar samples of 35 different plants were collected, oven dried and the RCI measured by XRD (Table 1, Figure 2A and 2B). It was evident that crystallinity measurements varied greatly among species assayed. The grasses had the highest RCI (58.5%) of all species tested and liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha), had the lowest RCI (18.8%). Of a collection of 22 grass species, the range in RCI was determined to be 51.1% to 58.5%, which was higher than leaves from all other species and more similar to values acquired from the stem of Arabidopsis. Other noteworthy observations were the similarity of RCI values for Podocarpus macrophyllus and Araucaria araucana, which are both of the pinophyta phylum. Cycas circinalis (Cycad), Sedum morganianum (Burro tail), Equisetum hyemale (horsetail) and Epiphyllum oxypetalum (Orchid) also displayed a similar RCI value ranging from 37.5 to 41.7%. The carnivorous plant Drosera adelae (lance leaf sundew) measured the second lowest RCI of 31.8%. Indeed, other plants with a similar morphology to the lance leaf sundew but very different metabolism such as Arabidopsis displayed higher RCI values (Table 1, Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Within this study, RCI correlated positively with leaf geometric constraints and with mass per unit area, suggestive of allometry.Further, in etiolated pea hypocotyls, RCI values also decreased compared to plants that were grown in light, consistent with alterations in FTIR cellulose fingerprint peaks and live cell imaging experiments revealing rapid orientation of the YFP::cellulose synthase-6 array in response to light.Herein, results and technical challenges associated with the structure of the cell wall that gives rise to sample crystallinity are presented and examined with respect to adaptation, acclimation and assembly in ecosystem-level processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Plant biomechanical design is central to cell shape, morphogenesis, reproductive performance and protection against environmental and mechanical stress. The cell wall forms the central load bearing support structure for plant design, yet a mechanistic understanding of its synthesis is incomplete. A key tool for studying the structure of cellulose polymorphs has been x-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Relative crystallinity index (RCI) is based on the x-ray diffraction characteristics of two signature peaks and we used this technique to probe plant assembly, adaptation and acclimation. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the dynamics of cellulose synthase in transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a homozygous YFP::CESA6. Assembly: RCI values for stems and roots were indistinguishable but leaves had 23.4 and 21.6% lower RCI than stems and roots respectively. Adaptation: over 3-fold variability in RCI was apparent in leaves from 35 plant species spanning Ordovician to Cretaceous periods. Within this study, RCI correlated positively with leaf geometric constraints and with mass per unit area, suggestive of allometry. Acclimation: biomass crystallinity was found to decrease under conditions of thigmomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Further, in etiolated pea hypocotyls, RCI values also decreased compared to plants that were grown in light, consistent with alterations in FTIR cellulose fingerprint peaks and live cell imaging experiments revealing rapid orientation of the YFP::cellulose synthase-6 array in response to light. Herein, results and technical challenges associated with the structure of the cell wall that gives rise to sample crystallinity are presented and examined with respect to adaptation, acclimation and assembly in ecosystem-level processes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus