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Smoking increases the risk of relapse after successful tuberculosis treatment.

d'Arc Lyra Batista J, de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque M, de Alencar Ximenes RA, Rodrigues LC - Int J Epidemiol (2008)

Bottom Line: A case of relapse was defined as a patient who started a second treatment during the follow up.Smoking (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.23-5.21) and living in an area where the family health program was not implemented (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.46-8.93) were found to be independently associated with relapse of tuberculosis.Smoking cessation support should be incorporated in the strategies to improve effectiveness of Tuberculosis Control Programs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent tobacco smoking has been identified as a risk factor for developing tuberculosis, and two studies which have investigated its association with relapse of tuberculosis after completion of treatment had conflicting results (and did not control for confounding). The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors for tuberculosis relapse, with emphasis on smoking.

Methods: A cohort of newly diagnosed TB cases was followed up from their discharge after completion of treatment (in 2001-2003) until October 2006 and relapses of tuberculosis ascertained during that period. A case of relapse was defined as a patient who started a second treatment during the follow up.

Results: Smoking (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.23-5.21) and living in an area where the family health program was not implemented (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.46-8.93) were found to be independently associated with relapse of tuberculosis.

Conclusions: Our results establish that smoking is associated with relapse of tuberculosis even after adjustment for the socioeconomic variables. Smoking cessation support should be incorporated in the strategies to improve effectiveness of Tuberculosis Control Programs.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Study flow diagram
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Figure 1: Study flow diagram

Mentions: A total of 1353 diagnosed TB patients had been identified for potential selection from the previous study from May 2001 to July 2003. Of these, 311 patients were not eligible for the first study because they referred previous treatment for tuberculosis (and so were already relapses) and 42 patients because they were under 13 years of age. Thus, 1000 patients of potential interest for this analysis were followed during the period of the tuberculosis treatment. From this group, 246 patients were not eligible for this analysis because they had an unsuccessful outcome (146 defaulters, 25 died during the course of treatment, 16 were treatment failures), 28 were excluded because they transferred out to a different tuberculosis treatment unit and 31 because they had no information on outcome of treatment. The study population therefore consisted of 754 patients with successful treatment outcomes (cured or completed treatment), and they were followed until 31 October 2006. During the follow-up period, 43 patients were excluded because they died after completion of treatment; therefore the final group consisted of 711 patients, of which 37 relapsed and 674 had not relapsed by the end of follow up (Figure 1).Figure 1


Smoking increases the risk of relapse after successful tuberculosis treatment.

d'Arc Lyra Batista J, de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque M, de Alencar Ximenes RA, Rodrigues LC - Int J Epidemiol (2008)

Study flow diagram
© Copyright Policy - openaccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2483312&req=5

Figure 1: Study flow diagram
Mentions: A total of 1353 diagnosed TB patients had been identified for potential selection from the previous study from May 2001 to July 2003. Of these, 311 patients were not eligible for the first study because they referred previous treatment for tuberculosis (and so were already relapses) and 42 patients because they were under 13 years of age. Thus, 1000 patients of potential interest for this analysis were followed during the period of the tuberculosis treatment. From this group, 246 patients were not eligible for this analysis because they had an unsuccessful outcome (146 defaulters, 25 died during the course of treatment, 16 were treatment failures), 28 were excluded because they transferred out to a different tuberculosis treatment unit and 31 because they had no information on outcome of treatment. The study population therefore consisted of 754 patients with successful treatment outcomes (cured or completed treatment), and they were followed until 31 October 2006. During the follow-up period, 43 patients were excluded because they died after completion of treatment; therefore the final group consisted of 711 patients, of which 37 relapsed and 674 had not relapsed by the end of follow up (Figure 1).Figure 1

Bottom Line: A case of relapse was defined as a patient who started a second treatment during the follow up.Smoking (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.23-5.21) and living in an area where the family health program was not implemented (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.46-8.93) were found to be independently associated with relapse of tuberculosis.Smoking cessation support should be incorporated in the strategies to improve effectiveness of Tuberculosis Control Programs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent tobacco smoking has been identified as a risk factor for developing tuberculosis, and two studies which have investigated its association with relapse of tuberculosis after completion of treatment had conflicting results (and did not control for confounding). The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors for tuberculosis relapse, with emphasis on smoking.

Methods: A cohort of newly diagnosed TB cases was followed up from their discharge after completion of treatment (in 2001-2003) until October 2006 and relapses of tuberculosis ascertained during that period. A case of relapse was defined as a patient who started a second treatment during the follow up.

Results: Smoking (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.23-5.21) and living in an area where the family health program was not implemented (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.46-8.93) were found to be independently associated with relapse of tuberculosis.

Conclusions: Our results establish that smoking is associated with relapse of tuberculosis even after adjustment for the socioeconomic variables. Smoking cessation support should be incorporated in the strategies to improve effectiveness of Tuberculosis Control Programs.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus