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Transfer of immunoglobulins through the mammary endothelium and epithelium and in the local lymph node of cows during the initial response after intramammary challenge with E. coli endotoxin.

Ostensson K, Lun S - Acta Vet. Scand. (2008)

Bottom Line: The M:A CR of IgM and Ig A decreased from 0 h to PIH 4, in spite of increasing permeability.The transfer of Igs through the endothelium appeared to be merely a result of diffusion although their large molecular size may hamper the diffusion.Our observations indicate a selective mechanism in the transfer of IgG1 through the epithelium also in lactating glands, not previously shown; a local synthesis of IgA and possibly of IgM, released primarily into milk, not into tissue fluid; that IgG2 transfer through both barriers is a result of passive diffusion only and that the content of efferent lymph is strongly influenced by IgG1, IgM and IgA in the mammary tissue, brought to the lymph node by afferent lymph.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. karin.ostensson@kv.slu.se

ABSTRACT

Background: The first hours after antigen stimulation, interactions occur influencing the outcome of the immunological reaction. Immunoglobulins originate in blood and/or are locally synthesized. The transfer of Ig isotypes (Igs) in the udder has been studied previously but without the possibility to distinguish between the endothelium and the epithelium. The purpose of this study was to map the Ig transfer through each barrier, separately, and Ig transfer in the local lymph nodes of the bovine udder during the initial innate immune response.

Methods: The content of IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA and albumin (BSA) was examined in peripheral/afferent mammary lymph and lymph leaving the supramammary lymph nodes, and in blood and milk before (0 h) and during 4 hours after intramammary challenge with Esherichia coli endotoxin in 5 cows.

Results: Igs increased most rapidly in afferent lymph resulting in higher concentrations than in efferent lymph at postinfusion hour (PIH) 2, contrary to before challenge. Ig concentrations in milk were lower than in lymph; except for IgA at 0 h; and they increased more slowly. Afferent lymph:serum and efferent lymph:serum concentration ratios (CR) of Igs were similar to those of BSA but slightly lower. Milk:afferent lymph (M:A) CRs of each Ig, except for IgG2, showed strikingly different pattern than those of BSA. The M:A CR of IgG1, IgM and IgA were higher than that of BSA before challenge and the CR of IgA and IgG1 remained higher also thereafter. At PIH 2 there was a drop in Ig CRs, except for IgG2, in contrast to the BSA CR which gradually increased. The M:A CR of IgM and Ig A decreased from 0 h to PIH 4, in spite of increasing permeability.

Conclusion: The transfer of Igs through the endothelium appeared to be merely a result of diffusion although their large molecular size may hamper the diffusion. The transfer through the epithelium and the Ig concentrations in milk seemed more influenced by selective mechanisms and local sources, respectively. Our observations indicate a selective mechanism in the transfer of IgG1 through the epithelium also in lactating glands, not previously shown; a local synthesis of IgA and possibly of IgM, released primarily into milk, not into tissue fluid; that IgG2 transfer through both barriers is a result of passive diffusion only and that the content of efferent lymph is strongly influenced by IgG1, IgM and IgA in the mammary tissue, brought to the lymph node by afferent lymph.

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Relative concentrations of immunoglobulin isotypes and bovine serum albumin (BSA) before and after intramammary infusion of 50 μg of Escherichia coli endotoxin. Afferent lymph:serum (A), efferent lymph:serum (B) and milk:afferent lymph (C) concentration ratios express the percentage of the blood serum concentration that is simultaneously found in afferent (A) and efferent (B) lymph, respectively, depicting the transfer through the endothelium; and the percentage of the afferent lymph concentration that is simultaneously found in milk (C), depicting the transfer through the mammary endothelium. Each value represents the LS-mean. Samples were collected before endotoxin infusion (0 h) and at postinfusion hours (PIH) 2 and 4.
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Figure 2: Relative concentrations of immunoglobulin isotypes and bovine serum albumin (BSA) before and after intramammary infusion of 50 μg of Escherichia coli endotoxin. Afferent lymph:serum (A), efferent lymph:serum (B) and milk:afferent lymph (C) concentration ratios express the percentage of the blood serum concentration that is simultaneously found in afferent (A) and efferent (B) lymph, respectively, depicting the transfer through the endothelium; and the percentage of the afferent lymph concentration that is simultaneously found in milk (C), depicting the transfer through the mammary endothelium. Each value represents the LS-mean. Samples were collected before endotoxin infusion (0 h) and at postinfusion hours (PIH) 2 and 4.

Mentions: To a varying extent, there is a general transduction of all Igs through the endothelium and epithelium, dependent on the permeability conditions. BSA in body secretions is considered to be a result of passive diffusion only. To evaluate the influence of selective mechanisms on the transfer or the presence of local synthesis, the ratio between the Ig concentrations on each side of a barrier like the endothelium (afferent lymph:blood serum and efferent lymph:blood serum) or the epithelium (milk:afferent lymph) can be compared with that of BSA [18,19]. Concentration ratios (CR) of IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA and BSA are presented in Figure 2, showing the concentration in lymph fluid expressed as the percentage of the blood serum concentration, (Fig. 2A and Fig. 2B) and the concentration in milk expressed as the percentage of the lymph/tissue fluid concentration (Fig 2C).


Transfer of immunoglobulins through the mammary endothelium and epithelium and in the local lymph node of cows during the initial response after intramammary challenge with E. coli endotoxin.

Ostensson K, Lun S - Acta Vet. Scand. (2008)

Relative concentrations of immunoglobulin isotypes and bovine serum albumin (BSA) before and after intramammary infusion of 50 μg of Escherichia coli endotoxin. Afferent lymph:serum (A), efferent lymph:serum (B) and milk:afferent lymph (C) concentration ratios express the percentage of the blood serum concentration that is simultaneously found in afferent (A) and efferent (B) lymph, respectively, depicting the transfer through the endothelium; and the percentage of the afferent lymph concentration that is simultaneously found in milk (C), depicting the transfer through the mammary endothelium. Each value represents the LS-mean. Samples were collected before endotoxin infusion (0 h) and at postinfusion hours (PIH) 2 and 4.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2483282&req=5

Figure 2: Relative concentrations of immunoglobulin isotypes and bovine serum albumin (BSA) before and after intramammary infusion of 50 μg of Escherichia coli endotoxin. Afferent lymph:serum (A), efferent lymph:serum (B) and milk:afferent lymph (C) concentration ratios express the percentage of the blood serum concentration that is simultaneously found in afferent (A) and efferent (B) lymph, respectively, depicting the transfer through the endothelium; and the percentage of the afferent lymph concentration that is simultaneously found in milk (C), depicting the transfer through the mammary endothelium. Each value represents the LS-mean. Samples were collected before endotoxin infusion (0 h) and at postinfusion hours (PIH) 2 and 4.
Mentions: To a varying extent, there is a general transduction of all Igs through the endothelium and epithelium, dependent on the permeability conditions. BSA in body secretions is considered to be a result of passive diffusion only. To evaluate the influence of selective mechanisms on the transfer or the presence of local synthesis, the ratio between the Ig concentrations on each side of a barrier like the endothelium (afferent lymph:blood serum and efferent lymph:blood serum) or the epithelium (milk:afferent lymph) can be compared with that of BSA [18,19]. Concentration ratios (CR) of IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA and BSA are presented in Figure 2, showing the concentration in lymph fluid expressed as the percentage of the blood serum concentration, (Fig. 2A and Fig. 2B) and the concentration in milk expressed as the percentage of the lymph/tissue fluid concentration (Fig 2C).

Bottom Line: The M:A CR of IgM and Ig A decreased from 0 h to PIH 4, in spite of increasing permeability.The transfer of Igs through the endothelium appeared to be merely a result of diffusion although their large molecular size may hamper the diffusion.Our observations indicate a selective mechanism in the transfer of IgG1 through the epithelium also in lactating glands, not previously shown; a local synthesis of IgA and possibly of IgM, released primarily into milk, not into tissue fluid; that IgG2 transfer through both barriers is a result of passive diffusion only and that the content of efferent lymph is strongly influenced by IgG1, IgM and IgA in the mammary tissue, brought to the lymph node by afferent lymph.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. karin.ostensson@kv.slu.se

ABSTRACT

Background: The first hours after antigen stimulation, interactions occur influencing the outcome of the immunological reaction. Immunoglobulins originate in blood and/or are locally synthesized. The transfer of Ig isotypes (Igs) in the udder has been studied previously but without the possibility to distinguish between the endothelium and the epithelium. The purpose of this study was to map the Ig transfer through each barrier, separately, and Ig transfer in the local lymph nodes of the bovine udder during the initial innate immune response.

Methods: The content of IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA and albumin (BSA) was examined in peripheral/afferent mammary lymph and lymph leaving the supramammary lymph nodes, and in blood and milk before (0 h) and during 4 hours after intramammary challenge with Esherichia coli endotoxin in 5 cows.

Results: Igs increased most rapidly in afferent lymph resulting in higher concentrations than in efferent lymph at postinfusion hour (PIH) 2, contrary to before challenge. Ig concentrations in milk were lower than in lymph; except for IgA at 0 h; and they increased more slowly. Afferent lymph:serum and efferent lymph:serum concentration ratios (CR) of Igs were similar to those of BSA but slightly lower. Milk:afferent lymph (M:A) CRs of each Ig, except for IgG2, showed strikingly different pattern than those of BSA. The M:A CR of IgG1, IgM and IgA were higher than that of BSA before challenge and the CR of IgA and IgG1 remained higher also thereafter. At PIH 2 there was a drop in Ig CRs, except for IgG2, in contrast to the BSA CR which gradually increased. The M:A CR of IgM and Ig A decreased from 0 h to PIH 4, in spite of increasing permeability.

Conclusion: The transfer of Igs through the endothelium appeared to be merely a result of diffusion although their large molecular size may hamper the diffusion. The transfer through the epithelium and the Ig concentrations in milk seemed more influenced by selective mechanisms and local sources, respectively. Our observations indicate a selective mechanism in the transfer of IgG1 through the epithelium also in lactating glands, not previously shown; a local synthesis of IgA and possibly of IgM, released primarily into milk, not into tissue fluid; that IgG2 transfer through both barriers is a result of passive diffusion only and that the content of efferent lymph is strongly influenced by IgG1, IgM and IgA in the mammary tissue, brought to the lymph node by afferent lymph.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus