Limits...
The AID/APOBEC family of nucleic acid mutators.

Conticello SG - Genome Biol. (2008)

Bottom Line: The AID/APOBECs, a group of cytidine deaminases, represent a somewhat unusual protein family that can insert mutations in DNA and RNA as a result of their ability to deaminate cytidine to uridine.APOBEC1 edits the mRNA for apolipoprotein B, a protein involved in lipid transport.A detailed understanding of the biological roles of the family is still some way off, however, and the functions of some members of the family are completely unknown.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Core Research Laboratory, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Florence, Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Firenze, Italy. silvo.conticello@ittumori.it

ABSTRACT
The AID/APOBECs, a group of cytidine deaminases, represent a somewhat unusual protein family that can insert mutations in DNA and RNA as a result of their ability to deaminate cytidine to uridine. The ancestral AID/APOBECs originated from a branch of the zinc-dependent deaminase superfamily at the beginning of the vertebrate radiation. Other members of the family have arisen in mammals and present a history of complex gene duplications and positive selection. All AID/APOBECs have a characteristic zinc-coordination motif, which forms the core of the catalytic site. The crystal structure of human APOBEC2 shows remarkable similarities to that of the bacterial tRNA-editing enzyme TadA, which suggests a conserved mechanism by which polynucleotides are recognized and deaminated. The AID/APOBECs seem to have diverse roles. AID and the APOBEC3s are DNA mutators, acting in antigen-driven antibody diversification processes and in an innate defense system against retroviruses, respectively. APOBEC1 edits the mRNA for apolipoprotein B, a protein involved in lipid transport. A detailed understanding of the biological roles of the family is still some way off, however, and the functions of some members of the family are completely unknown. Given their ability to mutate DNA, a role for the AID/APOBECs in the onset of cancer has been proposed.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic relationships within the AID/APOBEC gene family. The neighbor-joining tree shown here is generated from a protein alignment of the exon encoding the zinc-coordinating motif (the alignment is provided as Additional data file 1). The position of the agnathan (sea lamprey) AID (indicated by the arrow), separated from the clade comprising all the other AID/APOBECs, could suggest that all family members have originated from the ancestral AID. The different clusters in the AID/APOBEC family are identified, with the APOBEC3 cluster further divided into Z1a, Z1b, and Z2 clades (for the nomenclature of the APOBEC3 subgroups see [10]). Each domain of the double-domained APOBEC3s is included individually, with the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal domains labeled [N] and [C], respectively. While APOBEC1 has been described only in mammals, the APOBEC2 group is found in all jawed vertebrates, including the primitive ghost shark. The duplication of the APOBEC2 locus after an ancient genome duplication in bony fish has been maintained, resulting in two coevolving APOBEC2 genes. The organisms in which each group is found are indicated below the clade label. Clades are collapsed for clarity, and only nodes with a bootstrap value greater than 50 are shown. The sequences used are either described in [10,12] or obtained from the Ensembl Genome Browser [109]. The sequences for the ghost shark were obtained using the AID/APOBECs as queries in BLAST searches on the Callorhinchus milii genome shotgun contigs (GenBank accession numbers: AID, AAVX01329030; APOBEC2, AAVX01039499; APOBEC4, AAVX01642881).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2481415&req=5

Figure 2: Phylogenetic relationships within the AID/APOBEC gene family. The neighbor-joining tree shown here is generated from a protein alignment of the exon encoding the zinc-coordinating motif (the alignment is provided as Additional data file 1). The position of the agnathan (sea lamprey) AID (indicated by the arrow), separated from the clade comprising all the other AID/APOBECs, could suggest that all family members have originated from the ancestral AID. The different clusters in the AID/APOBEC family are identified, with the APOBEC3 cluster further divided into Z1a, Z1b, and Z2 clades (for the nomenclature of the APOBEC3 subgroups see [10]). Each domain of the double-domained APOBEC3s is included individually, with the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal domains labeled [N] and [C], respectively. While APOBEC1 has been described only in mammals, the APOBEC2 group is found in all jawed vertebrates, including the primitive ghost shark. The duplication of the APOBEC2 locus after an ancient genome duplication in bony fish has been maintained, resulting in two coevolving APOBEC2 genes. The organisms in which each group is found are indicated below the clade label. Clades are collapsed for clarity, and only nodes with a bootstrap value greater than 50 are shown. The sequences used are either described in [10,12] or obtained from the Ensembl Genome Browser [109]. The sequences for the ghost shark were obtained using the AID/APOBECs as queries in BLAST searches on the Callorhinchus milii genome shotgun contigs (GenBank accession numbers: AID, AAVX01329030; APOBEC2, AAVX01039499; APOBEC4, AAVX01642881).

Mentions: The rise of the AID/APOBEC gene family appears to have been concurrent with the appearance of the vertebrate lineage and the evolution of adaptive immunity and AID is thought to be one of the ancestral family members (Figure 2). AID homologs able to trigger somatic hyper-mutation and class-switch recombination in B cells have been described in bony fish [10,11], while bona fide AID homologs have been identified both in cartilaginous fish [10], which have immunoglobulin genes, and in the sea lamprey, a jawless vertebrate [12], which does not. The presence of AID in the lamprey is remarkable, as its system of 'adaptive immunity' is based not on immunoglobulins but on variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), a large family of proteins containing leucine-rich repeats, which undergo at least one round of diversification [12,13]. It will be interesting to know whether the sea lamprey AID homolog is involved in this process.


The AID/APOBEC family of nucleic acid mutators.

Conticello SG - Genome Biol. (2008)

Phylogenetic relationships within the AID/APOBEC gene family. The neighbor-joining tree shown here is generated from a protein alignment of the exon encoding the zinc-coordinating motif (the alignment is provided as Additional data file 1). The position of the agnathan (sea lamprey) AID (indicated by the arrow), separated from the clade comprising all the other AID/APOBECs, could suggest that all family members have originated from the ancestral AID. The different clusters in the AID/APOBEC family are identified, with the APOBEC3 cluster further divided into Z1a, Z1b, and Z2 clades (for the nomenclature of the APOBEC3 subgroups see [10]). Each domain of the double-domained APOBEC3s is included individually, with the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal domains labeled [N] and [C], respectively. While APOBEC1 has been described only in mammals, the APOBEC2 group is found in all jawed vertebrates, including the primitive ghost shark. The duplication of the APOBEC2 locus after an ancient genome duplication in bony fish has been maintained, resulting in two coevolving APOBEC2 genes. The organisms in which each group is found are indicated below the clade label. Clades are collapsed for clarity, and only nodes with a bootstrap value greater than 50 are shown. The sequences used are either described in [10,12] or obtained from the Ensembl Genome Browser [109]. The sequences for the ghost shark were obtained using the AID/APOBECs as queries in BLAST searches on the Callorhinchus milii genome shotgun contigs (GenBank accession numbers: AID, AAVX01329030; APOBEC2, AAVX01039499; APOBEC4, AAVX01642881).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2481415&req=5

Figure 2: Phylogenetic relationships within the AID/APOBEC gene family. The neighbor-joining tree shown here is generated from a protein alignment of the exon encoding the zinc-coordinating motif (the alignment is provided as Additional data file 1). The position of the agnathan (sea lamprey) AID (indicated by the arrow), separated from the clade comprising all the other AID/APOBECs, could suggest that all family members have originated from the ancestral AID. The different clusters in the AID/APOBEC family are identified, with the APOBEC3 cluster further divided into Z1a, Z1b, and Z2 clades (for the nomenclature of the APOBEC3 subgroups see [10]). Each domain of the double-domained APOBEC3s is included individually, with the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal domains labeled [N] and [C], respectively. While APOBEC1 has been described only in mammals, the APOBEC2 group is found in all jawed vertebrates, including the primitive ghost shark. The duplication of the APOBEC2 locus after an ancient genome duplication in bony fish has been maintained, resulting in two coevolving APOBEC2 genes. The organisms in which each group is found are indicated below the clade label. Clades are collapsed for clarity, and only nodes with a bootstrap value greater than 50 are shown. The sequences used are either described in [10,12] or obtained from the Ensembl Genome Browser [109]. The sequences for the ghost shark were obtained using the AID/APOBECs as queries in BLAST searches on the Callorhinchus milii genome shotgun contigs (GenBank accession numbers: AID, AAVX01329030; APOBEC2, AAVX01039499; APOBEC4, AAVX01642881).
Mentions: The rise of the AID/APOBEC gene family appears to have been concurrent with the appearance of the vertebrate lineage and the evolution of adaptive immunity and AID is thought to be one of the ancestral family members (Figure 2). AID homologs able to trigger somatic hyper-mutation and class-switch recombination in B cells have been described in bony fish [10,11], while bona fide AID homologs have been identified both in cartilaginous fish [10], which have immunoglobulin genes, and in the sea lamprey, a jawless vertebrate [12], which does not. The presence of AID in the lamprey is remarkable, as its system of 'adaptive immunity' is based not on immunoglobulins but on variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), a large family of proteins containing leucine-rich repeats, which undergo at least one round of diversification [12,13]. It will be interesting to know whether the sea lamprey AID homolog is involved in this process.

Bottom Line: The AID/APOBECs, a group of cytidine deaminases, represent a somewhat unusual protein family that can insert mutations in DNA and RNA as a result of their ability to deaminate cytidine to uridine.APOBEC1 edits the mRNA for apolipoprotein B, a protein involved in lipid transport.A detailed understanding of the biological roles of the family is still some way off, however, and the functions of some members of the family are completely unknown.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Core Research Laboratory, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Florence, Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Firenze, Italy. silvo.conticello@ittumori.it

ABSTRACT
The AID/APOBECs, a group of cytidine deaminases, represent a somewhat unusual protein family that can insert mutations in DNA and RNA as a result of their ability to deaminate cytidine to uridine. The ancestral AID/APOBECs originated from a branch of the zinc-dependent deaminase superfamily at the beginning of the vertebrate radiation. Other members of the family have arisen in mammals and present a history of complex gene duplications and positive selection. All AID/APOBECs have a characteristic zinc-coordination motif, which forms the core of the catalytic site. The crystal structure of human APOBEC2 shows remarkable similarities to that of the bacterial tRNA-editing enzyme TadA, which suggests a conserved mechanism by which polynucleotides are recognized and deaminated. The AID/APOBECs seem to have diverse roles. AID and the APOBEC3s are DNA mutators, acting in antigen-driven antibody diversification processes and in an innate defense system against retroviruses, respectively. APOBEC1 edits the mRNA for apolipoprotein B, a protein involved in lipid transport. A detailed understanding of the biological roles of the family is still some way off, however, and the functions of some members of the family are completely unknown. Given their ability to mutate DNA, a role for the AID/APOBECs in the onset of cancer has been proposed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus