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Polymorphism at the apical membrane antigen 1 locus reflects the world population history of Plasmodium vivax.

Grynberg P, Fontes CJ, Hughes AL, Braga EM - BMC Evol. Biol. (2008)

Bottom Line: One hundred and five ama-1 sequences were generated and analyzed from samples from six different Brazilian states and compared with database sequences from the Old World.Old World populations of P. vivax showed substantial evidence of population substructure, with high sequence divergence among localities at both synonymous and nonsynonymous sites, while Brazilian isolates showed reduced diversity and little population substructure.These results show that genetic diversity in P. vivax AMA-1 reflects population history, with population substructure characterizing long-established Old World populations, whereas Brazilian populations show evidence of loss of diversity and recent population expansion.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, (MG), Brazil. priscilag@ufmg.br

ABSTRACT

Background: In malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium), ama-1 is a highly polymorphic locus encoding the Apical Membrane Protein-1, and there is evidence that the polymorphism at this locus is selectively maintained. We tested the hypothesis that polymorphism at the ama-1 locus reflects population history in Plasmodium vivax, which is believed to have originated in Southeast Asia and is widely geographically distributed. In particular, we tested for a signature of the introduction of P. vivax into the New World at the time of the European conquest and African slave trade and subsequent population expansion.

Results: One hundred and five ama-1 sequences were generated and analyzed from samples from six different Brazilian states and compared with database sequences from the Old World. Old World populations of P. vivax showed substantial evidence of population substructure, with high sequence divergence among localities at both synonymous and nonsynonymous sites, while Brazilian isolates showed reduced diversity and little population substructure.

Conclusion: These results show that genetic diversity in P. vivax AMA-1 reflects population history, with population substructure characterizing long-established Old World populations, whereas Brazilian populations show evidence of loss of diversity and recent population expansion. NOTE: Nucleotide sequence data reported is this paper are available in the GenBanktrade mark database under the accession numbers EF031154 - EF031216 and EF057446 - EF057487.

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Plot of FST vs. geographical distance for Brazilian samples (green) and samples from Asia and Oceania (red). In the data from Brazil, there was a significant correlation between FST and geographical distance (r = 0.780; P < 0.01; randomization test). In the data from Asia and Oceania, there was not a significant correlation between FST and geographical distance (r = -0.196; n.s.; randomization test).
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Figure 3: Plot of FST vs. geographical distance for Brazilian samples (green) and samples from Asia and Oceania (red). In the data from Brazil, there was a significant correlation between FST and geographical distance (r = 0.780; P < 0.01; randomization test). In the data from Asia and Oceania, there was not a significant correlation between FST and geographical distance (r = -0.196; n.s.; randomization test).

Mentions: We plotted FST against the geographical distance between the sites where samples were collected separately for data from Brazil and data from Asia and Oceania (Figure 3). In the data from Asia and Oceania, there was not a significant correlation between FST and geographical distance (r = -0.196; n.s.; randomization test; Figure 3). By contrast, in Brazil, there was a strong positive correlation between FST and geographical distance (r = 0.780; P < 0.01; randomization test; Figure 3). The correlation coefficient for the Brazilian data was significantly different from that for the Asian and Oceanian data (p < 0.01; randomization test).


Polymorphism at the apical membrane antigen 1 locus reflects the world population history of Plasmodium vivax.

Grynberg P, Fontes CJ, Hughes AL, Braga EM - BMC Evol. Biol. (2008)

Plot of FST vs. geographical distance for Brazilian samples (green) and samples from Asia and Oceania (red). In the data from Brazil, there was a significant correlation between FST and geographical distance (r = 0.780; P < 0.01; randomization test). In the data from Asia and Oceania, there was not a significant correlation between FST and geographical distance (r = -0.196; n.s.; randomization test).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2394524&req=5

Figure 3: Plot of FST vs. geographical distance for Brazilian samples (green) and samples from Asia and Oceania (red). In the data from Brazil, there was a significant correlation between FST and geographical distance (r = 0.780; P < 0.01; randomization test). In the data from Asia and Oceania, there was not a significant correlation between FST and geographical distance (r = -0.196; n.s.; randomization test).
Mentions: We plotted FST against the geographical distance between the sites where samples were collected separately for data from Brazil and data from Asia and Oceania (Figure 3). In the data from Asia and Oceania, there was not a significant correlation between FST and geographical distance (r = -0.196; n.s.; randomization test; Figure 3). By contrast, in Brazil, there was a strong positive correlation between FST and geographical distance (r = 0.780; P < 0.01; randomization test; Figure 3). The correlation coefficient for the Brazilian data was significantly different from that for the Asian and Oceanian data (p < 0.01; randomization test).

Bottom Line: One hundred and five ama-1 sequences were generated and analyzed from samples from six different Brazilian states and compared with database sequences from the Old World.Old World populations of P. vivax showed substantial evidence of population substructure, with high sequence divergence among localities at both synonymous and nonsynonymous sites, while Brazilian isolates showed reduced diversity and little population substructure.These results show that genetic diversity in P. vivax AMA-1 reflects population history, with population substructure characterizing long-established Old World populations, whereas Brazilian populations show evidence of loss of diversity and recent population expansion.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, (MG), Brazil. priscilag@ufmg.br

ABSTRACT

Background: In malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium), ama-1 is a highly polymorphic locus encoding the Apical Membrane Protein-1, and there is evidence that the polymorphism at this locus is selectively maintained. We tested the hypothesis that polymorphism at the ama-1 locus reflects population history in Plasmodium vivax, which is believed to have originated in Southeast Asia and is widely geographically distributed. In particular, we tested for a signature of the introduction of P. vivax into the New World at the time of the European conquest and African slave trade and subsequent population expansion.

Results: One hundred and five ama-1 sequences were generated and analyzed from samples from six different Brazilian states and compared with database sequences from the Old World. Old World populations of P. vivax showed substantial evidence of population substructure, with high sequence divergence among localities at both synonymous and nonsynonymous sites, while Brazilian isolates showed reduced diversity and little population substructure.

Conclusion: These results show that genetic diversity in P. vivax AMA-1 reflects population history, with population substructure characterizing long-established Old World populations, whereas Brazilian populations show evidence of loss of diversity and recent population expansion. NOTE: Nucleotide sequence data reported is this paper are available in the GenBanktrade mark database under the accession numbers EF031154 - EF031216 and EF057446 - EF057487.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus