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Oldest record of Trimeniaceae from the early Cretaceous of northern Japan.

Yamada T, Nishida H, Umebayashi M, Uemura K, Kato M - BMC Evol. Biol. (2008)

Bottom Line: The fossil seed indicates that seed coat characters were conserved for 100 million years or more in Trimeniaceae.It also suggests that the antiraphal vascular bundle and perispermy originated secondarily in Trimeniaceae as previously inferred from the phylogeny and character distribution in the extant basalmost angiosperms.The fossil seed provides the first evidence that Trimeniaceae was distributed in a midlatitude location of the Northern Hemisphere during the Early Cretaceous, when angiosperms radiated extensively, supporting a hypothesis that the extant austral distribution is relict.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan. ptilo@mb.infoweb.ne.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: Molecular phylogenetic analyses have identified Trimeniaceae, a monotypic family distributed only in Oceania, as among the earliest diverging families of extant angiosperms. Therefore, the fossils of this family are helpful to understand the earliest flowering plants. Paleobotanical information is also important to track the historical and geographical pathways to endemism of the Trimeniaceae. However, fossils of the family were previously unknown from the Early Cretaceous, the time when the angiosperm radiated. In this study, we report a seed from the late Albian (ca. 100 million years ago) of Japan representing the oldest known occurrence of Trimeniaceae and discuss the character evolution and biogeography of this family.

Results: A structurally preserved seed was collected from the early Late Albian Hikagenosawa Formation of the Yezo Group, which was deposited in palaeolatitudes of 35 to 40 degrees N. The seed has a multilayered stony exotesta with alveolate surface, parenchymatous mesotesta, and operculate inner integument, which are characteristic to extant trimeniaceous seeds. However, the seed differs from extant seeds, i.e., in its well-developed endosperm and absence of antiraphal vascular bundle. Thus, the seed would be a new genus and species of Trimeniaceae.

Conclusion: The fossil seed indicates that seed coat characters were conserved for 100 million years or more in Trimeniaceae. It also suggests that the antiraphal vascular bundle and perispermy originated secondarily in Trimeniaceae as previously inferred from the phylogeny and character distribution in the extant basalmost angiosperms. The fossil seed provides the first evidence that Trimeniaceae was distributed in a midlatitude location of the Northern Hemisphere during the Early Cretaceous, when angiosperms radiated extensively, supporting a hypothesis that the extant austral distribution is relict.

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Geological map of Ponbetsu area and locality of the trimeniaceous seed. Ponbetsu area are boxed in large-scale map of Hokkaido on the left-bottom corner. Geological map is redrawn from Narita et al. 31.
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Figure 1: Geological map of Ponbetsu area and locality of the trimeniaceous seed. Ponbetsu area are boxed in large-scale map of Hokkaido on the left-bottom corner. Geological map is redrawn from Narita et al. 31.

Mentions: A structurally preserved seed was found within a calcareous siltstone nodule collected at Pombetsu, Mikasa City, Hokkaido, Japan (Figure 1). The Hikagenosawa Formation of the Yezo Group outcrops in the area and contains ammonoids indicating a date in the early Late Albian [30,31]. Palaeomagnetic studies show that these sediments were deposited in palaeolatitudes of 35 to 40°N and that the sedimentary basin was located on the eastern side of Laurasia [30,32]. Because the formation mainly consists of offshore sediments, there are few palaeobotanical records within it [33-35], but a subtropical climate with dry seasons seems to have prevailed in the area, as suggested by the occurrence of a cheirolepidiaceous conifer [34] and a variety of ephedroid palynomorphs [33].


Oldest record of Trimeniaceae from the early Cretaceous of northern Japan.

Yamada T, Nishida H, Umebayashi M, Uemura K, Kato M - BMC Evol. Biol. (2008)

Geological map of Ponbetsu area and locality of the trimeniaceous seed. Ponbetsu area are boxed in large-scale map of Hokkaido on the left-bottom corner. Geological map is redrawn from Narita et al. 31.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2390519&req=5

Figure 1: Geological map of Ponbetsu area and locality of the trimeniaceous seed. Ponbetsu area are boxed in large-scale map of Hokkaido on the left-bottom corner. Geological map is redrawn from Narita et al. 31.
Mentions: A structurally preserved seed was found within a calcareous siltstone nodule collected at Pombetsu, Mikasa City, Hokkaido, Japan (Figure 1). The Hikagenosawa Formation of the Yezo Group outcrops in the area and contains ammonoids indicating a date in the early Late Albian [30,31]. Palaeomagnetic studies show that these sediments were deposited in palaeolatitudes of 35 to 40°N and that the sedimentary basin was located on the eastern side of Laurasia [30,32]. Because the formation mainly consists of offshore sediments, there are few palaeobotanical records within it [33-35], but a subtropical climate with dry seasons seems to have prevailed in the area, as suggested by the occurrence of a cheirolepidiaceous conifer [34] and a variety of ephedroid palynomorphs [33].

Bottom Line: The fossil seed indicates that seed coat characters were conserved for 100 million years or more in Trimeniaceae.It also suggests that the antiraphal vascular bundle and perispermy originated secondarily in Trimeniaceae as previously inferred from the phylogeny and character distribution in the extant basalmost angiosperms.The fossil seed provides the first evidence that Trimeniaceae was distributed in a midlatitude location of the Northern Hemisphere during the Early Cretaceous, when angiosperms radiated extensively, supporting a hypothesis that the extant austral distribution is relict.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan. ptilo@mb.infoweb.ne.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: Molecular phylogenetic analyses have identified Trimeniaceae, a monotypic family distributed only in Oceania, as among the earliest diverging families of extant angiosperms. Therefore, the fossils of this family are helpful to understand the earliest flowering plants. Paleobotanical information is also important to track the historical and geographical pathways to endemism of the Trimeniaceae. However, fossils of the family were previously unknown from the Early Cretaceous, the time when the angiosperm radiated. In this study, we report a seed from the late Albian (ca. 100 million years ago) of Japan representing the oldest known occurrence of Trimeniaceae and discuss the character evolution and biogeography of this family.

Results: A structurally preserved seed was collected from the early Late Albian Hikagenosawa Formation of the Yezo Group, which was deposited in palaeolatitudes of 35 to 40 degrees N. The seed has a multilayered stony exotesta with alveolate surface, parenchymatous mesotesta, and operculate inner integument, which are characteristic to extant trimeniaceous seeds. However, the seed differs from extant seeds, i.e., in its well-developed endosperm and absence of antiraphal vascular bundle. Thus, the seed would be a new genus and species of Trimeniaceae.

Conclusion: The fossil seed indicates that seed coat characters were conserved for 100 million years or more in Trimeniaceae. It also suggests that the antiraphal vascular bundle and perispermy originated secondarily in Trimeniaceae as previously inferred from the phylogeny and character distribution in the extant basalmost angiosperms. The fossil seed provides the first evidence that Trimeniaceae was distributed in a midlatitude location of the Northern Hemisphere during the Early Cretaceous, when angiosperms radiated extensively, supporting a hypothesis that the extant austral distribution is relict.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus