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The mammalian centrosome and its functional significance.

Schatten H - Histochem. Cell Biol. (2008)

Bottom Line: The centrosome's role in various diseases has been recognized and a wealth of data has been accumulated linking dysfunctional centrosomes to cancer, Alstrom syndrome, various neurological disorders, and others.Centrosome abnormalities and dysfunctions have been associated with several types of infertility.The present review highlights the centrosome's significant roles in cell cycle events in somatic and reproductive cells and discusses centrosome abnormalities and implications in disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, 1600 E Rollins Street, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. SchattenH@missouri.edu

ABSTRACT
Primarily known for its role as major microtubule organizing center, the centrosome is increasingly being recognized for its functional significance in key cell cycle regulating events. We are now at the beginning of understanding the centrosome's functional complexities and its major impact on directing complex interactions and signal transduction cascades important for cell cycle regulation. The centrosome orchestrates entry into mitosis, anaphase onset, cytokinesis, G1/S transition, and monitors DNA damage. Recently, the centrosome has also been recognized as major docking station where regulatory complexes accumulate including kinases and phosphatases as well as numerous other cell cycle regulators that utilize the centrosome as platform to coordinate multiple cell cycle-specific functions. Vesicles that are translocated along microtubules to and away from centrosomes may also carry enzymes or substrates that use centrosomes as main docking station. The centrosome's role in various diseases has been recognized and a wealth of data has been accumulated linking dysfunctional centrosomes to cancer, Alstrom syndrome, various neurological disorders, and others. Centrosome abnormalities and dysfunctions have been associated with several types of infertility. The present review highlights the centrosome's significant roles in cell cycle events in somatic and reproductive cells and discusses centrosome abnormalities and implications in disease.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The structural cell cycle-dependent changes of centrosomes are shown here in sea urchin eggs during the first cell cycle after fertilization. This system had been used by Theodor Boveri for the majority of his classic studies on centrosomes. Centrosome material disperses around the zygote nucleus (aarrows) and separates to the poles during prophase (carrows). Centrosomes become densely compacted in metaphase (earrows) and disperse during anaphase (garrows). The correlated images for microtubules either from the same cell or from corresponding cell cycle stages are shown in b, d, f, and h. Immunofluorescence microscopy of centrosomes, microtubules, and DNA (blue). Centrosomes are displayed in green; microtubules are displayed in green (b, d) or red (f, h). Reprinted with permission from Schatten et al. 2000a
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Fig3: The structural cell cycle-dependent changes of centrosomes are shown here in sea urchin eggs during the first cell cycle after fertilization. This system had been used by Theodor Boveri for the majority of his classic studies on centrosomes. Centrosome material disperses around the zygote nucleus (aarrows) and separates to the poles during prophase (carrows). Centrosomes become densely compacted in metaphase (earrows) and disperse during anaphase (garrows). The correlated images for microtubules either from the same cell or from corresponding cell cycle stages are shown in b, d, f, and h. Immunofluorescence microscopy of centrosomes, microtubules, and DNA (blue). Centrosomes are displayed in green; microtubules are displayed in green (b, d) or red (f, h). Reprinted with permission from Schatten et al. 2000a

Mentions: Live cell imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy have clearly shown the remarkable shape changes of the centrosome which is best visualized in reproductive cells after fertilization requiring rapid centrosome and microtubule dynamics to position the pronuclei and prepare the zygote cell for mitosis. Figure 3 shows stages of the centrosome cycle in a sea urchin egg which is the model system used by Boveri (1901) for many of his centrosome studies. Centrosomal material disperses around the zygote nucleus (Fig. 3a) to become bipolar in late prophase (Fig. 4c). It becomes maximally condensed during metaphase (Fig. 3e) and expands within the anaphase spindle poles (Fig. 3g) before it becomes compacted again when telophase nuclei form. Figure 3b, d, f, and h are images of microtubule labeling for either the same cell or cells of equivalent cell cycle stages.Fig. 3


The mammalian centrosome and its functional significance.

Schatten H - Histochem. Cell Biol. (2008)

The structural cell cycle-dependent changes of centrosomes are shown here in sea urchin eggs during the first cell cycle after fertilization. This system had been used by Theodor Boveri for the majority of his classic studies on centrosomes. Centrosome material disperses around the zygote nucleus (aarrows) and separates to the poles during prophase (carrows). Centrosomes become densely compacted in metaphase (earrows) and disperse during anaphase (garrows). The correlated images for microtubules either from the same cell or from corresponding cell cycle stages are shown in b, d, f, and h. Immunofluorescence microscopy of centrosomes, microtubules, and DNA (blue). Centrosomes are displayed in green; microtubules are displayed in green (b, d) or red (f, h). Reprinted with permission from Schatten et al. 2000a
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2386528&req=5

Fig3: The structural cell cycle-dependent changes of centrosomes are shown here in sea urchin eggs during the first cell cycle after fertilization. This system had been used by Theodor Boveri for the majority of his classic studies on centrosomes. Centrosome material disperses around the zygote nucleus (aarrows) and separates to the poles during prophase (carrows). Centrosomes become densely compacted in metaphase (earrows) and disperse during anaphase (garrows). The correlated images for microtubules either from the same cell or from corresponding cell cycle stages are shown in b, d, f, and h. Immunofluorescence microscopy of centrosomes, microtubules, and DNA (blue). Centrosomes are displayed in green; microtubules are displayed in green (b, d) or red (f, h). Reprinted with permission from Schatten et al. 2000a
Mentions: Live cell imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy have clearly shown the remarkable shape changes of the centrosome which is best visualized in reproductive cells after fertilization requiring rapid centrosome and microtubule dynamics to position the pronuclei and prepare the zygote cell for mitosis. Figure 3 shows stages of the centrosome cycle in a sea urchin egg which is the model system used by Boveri (1901) for many of his centrosome studies. Centrosomal material disperses around the zygote nucleus (Fig. 3a) to become bipolar in late prophase (Fig. 4c). It becomes maximally condensed during metaphase (Fig. 3e) and expands within the anaphase spindle poles (Fig. 3g) before it becomes compacted again when telophase nuclei form. Figure 3b, d, f, and h are images of microtubule labeling for either the same cell or cells of equivalent cell cycle stages.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: The centrosome's role in various diseases has been recognized and a wealth of data has been accumulated linking dysfunctional centrosomes to cancer, Alstrom syndrome, various neurological disorders, and others.Centrosome abnormalities and dysfunctions have been associated with several types of infertility.The present review highlights the centrosome's significant roles in cell cycle events in somatic and reproductive cells and discusses centrosome abnormalities and implications in disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, 1600 E Rollins Street, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. SchattenH@missouri.edu

ABSTRACT
Primarily known for its role as major microtubule organizing center, the centrosome is increasingly being recognized for its functional significance in key cell cycle regulating events. We are now at the beginning of understanding the centrosome's functional complexities and its major impact on directing complex interactions and signal transduction cascades important for cell cycle regulation. The centrosome orchestrates entry into mitosis, anaphase onset, cytokinesis, G1/S transition, and monitors DNA damage. Recently, the centrosome has also been recognized as major docking station where regulatory complexes accumulate including kinases and phosphatases as well as numerous other cell cycle regulators that utilize the centrosome as platform to coordinate multiple cell cycle-specific functions. Vesicles that are translocated along microtubules to and away from centrosomes may also carry enzymes or substrates that use centrosomes as main docking station. The centrosome's role in various diseases has been recognized and a wealth of data has been accumulated linking dysfunctional centrosomes to cancer, Alstrom syndrome, various neurological disorders, and others. Centrosome abnormalities and dysfunctions have been associated with several types of infertility. The present review highlights the centrosome's significant roles in cell cycle events in somatic and reproductive cells and discusses centrosome abnormalities and implications in disease.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus