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Evolution of the insect Sox genes.

Wilson MJ, Dearden PK - BMC Evol. Biol. (2008)

Bottom Line: AmSoxC, D and F were expressed ubiquitously in late embryos and in the follicle cells of the queen ovary.Hymenopteran insects have an additional SoxE gene, which may have arisen by gene duplication.Expression analyses of honeybee SoxB genes implies that this group of genes may be able to rapidly evolve new functions and expression domains, while the combined expression pattern of all the SoxB genes is maintained.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Evolution and Development, National Research Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. meganj.wilson@otago.ac.nz

ABSTRACT

Background: The Sox gene family of transcriptional regulators have essential roles during development and have been extensively studied in vertebrates. The mouse, human and fugu genomes contain at least 20 Sox genes, which are subdivided into groups based on sequence similarity of the highly conserved HMG domain. In the well-studied insect Drosophila melanogaster, eight Sox genes have been identified and are involved in processes such as neurogenesis, dorsal-ventral patterning and segmentation.

Results: We examined the available genome sequences of Apis mellifera, Nasonia vitripennis, Tribolium castaneum, Anopheles gambiae and identified Sox family members which were classified by phylogenetics using the HMG domains. Using in situ hybridisation we determined the expression patterns of eight honeybee Sox genes in honeybee embryo, adult brain and queen ovary. AmSoxB group genes were expressed in the nervous system, brain and Malphigian tubules. The restricted localization of AmSox21b and AmSoxB1 mRNAs within the oocyte, suggested a role in, or that they are regulated by, dorsal-ventral patterning. AmSoxC, D and F were expressed ubiquitously in late embryos and in the follicle cells of the queen ovary. Expression of AmSoxF and two AmSoxE genes was detected in the drone testis.

Conclusion: Insect genomes contain between eight and nine Sox genes, with at least four members belonging to Sox group B and other Sox subgroups each being represented by a single Sox gene. Hymenopteran insects have an additional SoxE gene, which may have arisen by gene duplication. Expression analyses of honeybee SoxB genes implies that this group of genes may be able to rapidly evolve new functions and expression domains, while the combined expression pattern of all the SoxB genes is maintained.

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SOXE group gene duplication in hymenoptera. A. Illustration of the SoxE gene genomic region from A. mellifera and N. vitripennis genomes. Both genomes encode two copies of SoxE group gene that share a common promoter region. B. Insect SOXE group proteins form a separate clade to the vertebrate SOXE proteins, that are split into three separate groupings, SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10. Insect SOXE proteins are most closely related to vertebrate SOX8 proteins. The unrooted tree was constructed using Phylip, bootstrap values are shown at internal branches.
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Figure 3: SOXE group gene duplication in hymenoptera. A. Illustration of the SoxE gene genomic region from A. mellifera and N. vitripennis genomes. Both genomes encode two copies of SoxE group gene that share a common promoter region. B. Insect SOXE group proteins form a separate clade to the vertebrate SOXE proteins, that are split into three separate groupings, SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10. Insect SOXE proteins are most closely related to vertebrate SOX8 proteins. The unrooted tree was constructed using Phylip, bootstrap values are shown at internal branches.

Mentions: Phylogenetic analyses revealed that honeybee and Nasonia both have one additional Sox group E gene compared to Drosophila, which has only one, DmSox100b (Fig. 2A). This additional SOXE protein seems likely to have arisen by gene duplication as both pairs of genes share a similar exon structure and appear to share a common promoter region (Fig 3A). This duplication must have occurred in an ancestor of hymenopteran insects before the split of Nasonia and Apis. Sequence analyses using full-length protein sequences revealed that invertebrate SOXE proteins form a clade separate to vertebrate SOXE proteins, and they are most closely related to the vertebrate SOXE protein, SOX8 (Fig 3B).


Evolution of the insect Sox genes.

Wilson MJ, Dearden PK - BMC Evol. Biol. (2008)

SOXE group gene duplication in hymenoptera. A. Illustration of the SoxE gene genomic region from A. mellifera and N. vitripennis genomes. Both genomes encode two copies of SoxE group gene that share a common promoter region. B. Insect SOXE group proteins form a separate clade to the vertebrate SOXE proteins, that are split into three separate groupings, SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10. Insect SOXE proteins are most closely related to vertebrate SOX8 proteins. The unrooted tree was constructed using Phylip, bootstrap values are shown at internal branches.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2386450&req=5

Figure 3: SOXE group gene duplication in hymenoptera. A. Illustration of the SoxE gene genomic region from A. mellifera and N. vitripennis genomes. Both genomes encode two copies of SoxE group gene that share a common promoter region. B. Insect SOXE group proteins form a separate clade to the vertebrate SOXE proteins, that are split into three separate groupings, SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10. Insect SOXE proteins are most closely related to vertebrate SOX8 proteins. The unrooted tree was constructed using Phylip, bootstrap values are shown at internal branches.
Mentions: Phylogenetic analyses revealed that honeybee and Nasonia both have one additional Sox group E gene compared to Drosophila, which has only one, DmSox100b (Fig. 2A). This additional SOXE protein seems likely to have arisen by gene duplication as both pairs of genes share a similar exon structure and appear to share a common promoter region (Fig 3A). This duplication must have occurred in an ancestor of hymenopteran insects before the split of Nasonia and Apis. Sequence analyses using full-length protein sequences revealed that invertebrate SOXE proteins form a clade separate to vertebrate SOXE proteins, and they are most closely related to the vertebrate SOXE protein, SOX8 (Fig 3B).

Bottom Line: AmSoxC, D and F were expressed ubiquitously in late embryos and in the follicle cells of the queen ovary.Hymenopteran insects have an additional SoxE gene, which may have arisen by gene duplication.Expression analyses of honeybee SoxB genes implies that this group of genes may be able to rapidly evolve new functions and expression domains, while the combined expression pattern of all the SoxB genes is maintained.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Evolution and Development, National Research Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. meganj.wilson@otago.ac.nz

ABSTRACT

Background: The Sox gene family of transcriptional regulators have essential roles during development and have been extensively studied in vertebrates. The mouse, human and fugu genomes contain at least 20 Sox genes, which are subdivided into groups based on sequence similarity of the highly conserved HMG domain. In the well-studied insect Drosophila melanogaster, eight Sox genes have been identified and are involved in processes such as neurogenesis, dorsal-ventral patterning and segmentation.

Results: We examined the available genome sequences of Apis mellifera, Nasonia vitripennis, Tribolium castaneum, Anopheles gambiae and identified Sox family members which were classified by phylogenetics using the HMG domains. Using in situ hybridisation we determined the expression patterns of eight honeybee Sox genes in honeybee embryo, adult brain and queen ovary. AmSoxB group genes were expressed in the nervous system, brain and Malphigian tubules. The restricted localization of AmSox21b and AmSoxB1 mRNAs within the oocyte, suggested a role in, or that they are regulated by, dorsal-ventral patterning. AmSoxC, D and F were expressed ubiquitously in late embryos and in the follicle cells of the queen ovary. Expression of AmSoxF and two AmSoxE genes was detected in the drone testis.

Conclusion: Insect genomes contain between eight and nine Sox genes, with at least four members belonging to Sox group B and other Sox subgroups each being represented by a single Sox gene. Hymenopteran insects have an additional SoxE gene, which may have arisen by gene duplication. Expression analyses of honeybee SoxB genes implies that this group of genes may be able to rapidly evolve new functions and expression domains, while the combined expression pattern of all the SoxB genes is maintained.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus