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Timing and tempo of early and successive adaptive radiations in Macaronesia.

Kim SC, McGowen MR, Lubinsky P, Barber JC, Mort ME, Santos-Guerra A - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: Despite intensive investigation in the last 15 years, absolute age and rate of diversification are poorly known for the flora of Macaronesia.Subsequent inter-archipelago dispersal events into Madeira and the Cape Verdes took place very recently during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene after initial diversification on the Canary Islands.Our results demonstrate that opportunity for island colonization and successful radiation may have been constrained to discrete time periods of profound climatic and geological changes in northern African and the Mediterranean.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, United States of America. sckim@ucr.edu

ABSTRACT
The flora of Macaronesia, which encompasses five Atlantic archipelagos (Azores, Canaries, Madeira, Cape Verde, and Salvage), is exceptionally rich and diverse. Spectacular radiation of numerous endemic plant groups has made the Macaronesian islands an outstanding area for studies of evolution and speciation. Despite intensive investigation in the last 15 years, absolute age and rate of diversification are poorly known for the flora of Macaronesia. Here we report molecular divergence estimates and rates of diversification for five representative, putative rapid radiations of monophyletic endemic plant lineages across the core eudicot clade of flowering plants. Three discrete windows of colonization during the Miocene and early Pliocene are suggested for these lineages, all of which are inferred to have had a single colonization event followed by rapid radiation. Subsequent inter-archipelago dispersal events into Madeira and the Cape Verdes took place very recently during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene after initial diversification on the Canary Islands. The tempo of adaptive radiations differs among the groups, but is relatively rapid compared to continental and other island radiations. Our results demonstrate that opportunity for island colonization and successful radiation may have been constrained to discrete time periods of profound climatic and geological changes in northern African and the Mediterranean.

Show MeSH
The phytogeographic region of Macaronesia, including five Atlantic volcanic archipelagos (the Azores, the Madeiras, the Salvage Islands, the Canary Islands, and the Cape Verde Islands).The age of current above-sea landmass for each island is from [2].
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pone-0002139-g001: The phytogeographic region of Macaronesia, including five Atlantic volcanic archipelagos (the Azores, the Madeiras, the Salvage Islands, the Canary Islands, and the Cape Verde Islands).The age of current above-sea landmass for each island is from [2].

Mentions: The phytogeographical region Macaronesia [1] consists of five Atlantic volcanic archipelagos, including the Azores, Madeira, the Salvage Islands, the Canary Islands, and the Cape Verde Islands, as well as a “Macaronesian Enclave” on the African mainland, comprising southern Morocco and the former Spanish West Africa (Fig. 1). The five archipelagos are situated between 15° to 40° N latitude, with distances from the European or African continents varying from 95 to 1600 km. Geological ages of individual islands vary from 0.8 million years (My) for El Hierro to 21 My for Fuerteventura [2], both of which belong to the Canarian archipelago. The influence of moisture-laden northeasterly trade winds combined with altitudes reaching more than 3,700 meters has produced a remarkable diversity of ecological habitats.


Timing and tempo of early and successive adaptive radiations in Macaronesia.

Kim SC, McGowen MR, Lubinsky P, Barber JC, Mort ME, Santos-Guerra A - PLoS ONE (2008)

The phytogeographic region of Macaronesia, including five Atlantic volcanic archipelagos (the Azores, the Madeiras, the Salvage Islands, the Canary Islands, and the Cape Verde Islands).The age of current above-sea landmass for each island is from [2].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2367450&req=5

pone-0002139-g001: The phytogeographic region of Macaronesia, including five Atlantic volcanic archipelagos (the Azores, the Madeiras, the Salvage Islands, the Canary Islands, and the Cape Verde Islands).The age of current above-sea landmass for each island is from [2].
Mentions: The phytogeographical region Macaronesia [1] consists of five Atlantic volcanic archipelagos, including the Azores, Madeira, the Salvage Islands, the Canary Islands, and the Cape Verde Islands, as well as a “Macaronesian Enclave” on the African mainland, comprising southern Morocco and the former Spanish West Africa (Fig. 1). The five archipelagos are situated between 15° to 40° N latitude, with distances from the European or African continents varying from 95 to 1600 km. Geological ages of individual islands vary from 0.8 million years (My) for El Hierro to 21 My for Fuerteventura [2], both of which belong to the Canarian archipelago. The influence of moisture-laden northeasterly trade winds combined with altitudes reaching more than 3,700 meters has produced a remarkable diversity of ecological habitats.

Bottom Line: Despite intensive investigation in the last 15 years, absolute age and rate of diversification are poorly known for the flora of Macaronesia.Subsequent inter-archipelago dispersal events into Madeira and the Cape Verdes took place very recently during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene after initial diversification on the Canary Islands.Our results demonstrate that opportunity for island colonization and successful radiation may have been constrained to discrete time periods of profound climatic and geological changes in northern African and the Mediterranean.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, United States of America. sckim@ucr.edu

ABSTRACT
The flora of Macaronesia, which encompasses five Atlantic archipelagos (Azores, Canaries, Madeira, Cape Verde, and Salvage), is exceptionally rich and diverse. Spectacular radiation of numerous endemic plant groups has made the Macaronesian islands an outstanding area for studies of evolution and speciation. Despite intensive investigation in the last 15 years, absolute age and rate of diversification are poorly known for the flora of Macaronesia. Here we report molecular divergence estimates and rates of diversification for five representative, putative rapid radiations of monophyletic endemic plant lineages across the core eudicot clade of flowering plants. Three discrete windows of colonization during the Miocene and early Pliocene are suggested for these lineages, all of which are inferred to have had a single colonization event followed by rapid radiation. Subsequent inter-archipelago dispersal events into Madeira and the Cape Verdes took place very recently during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene after initial diversification on the Canary Islands. The tempo of adaptive radiations differs among the groups, but is relatively rapid compared to continental and other island radiations. Our results demonstrate that opportunity for island colonization and successful radiation may have been constrained to discrete time periods of profound climatic and geological changes in northern African and the Mediterranean.

Show MeSH