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Evaluation of the occupational doses of interventional radiologists.

Kuipers G, Velders XL, de Winter RJ, Reekers JA, Piek JJ - Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol (2008)

Bottom Line: The doses above and under the protective aprons of seven radiologists did not differ significantly.There is no evidence that the effective dose can be estimated more accurately when an additional dosimeter is used.Due to the threshold it can be concluded that the doses under the lead apron will not be underestimated easily when doses above the lead apron are used to calculate them.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Radiation Protection Group, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, 1105 AZ, The Netherlands. g.kuipers@amc.uva.nl

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a linear relation between the doses measured above and those measured under the lead apron of the radiologists performing interventional procedures. To monitor radiation exposure the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the use of a single dosimeter under the protective apron. To determine the exposure more accurately an additional dosimeter is recommended above the protective apron. The exposure of eight radiologists was monitored with two personal dosimeters during 3 consecutive years. To measure the doses uniformly the two dosimeters were worn in a special holder attached to the lead apron. The two personal dosimeters were replaced every 4 weeks on the same day. The doses above and under the protective aprons of seven radiologists did not differ significantly. A significant lower dose above and under the protective apron was measured for one of the radiologists. During a 4-week period the average dose measured above the lead apron was 3.44 mSv (median, 3.05 mSv), while that under the 0.25-mm lead apron was 0.12 mSv (median, 0.1 mSv). The coefficients of the regression line result in the equation Y = 0.036X-0.004, with Y as the dose under the lead apron and X as the dose above the lead apron. The statistical analysis of the data established a linear relation between the doses above and those under the lead apron (R(2) = 0.59). Before the special holder was introduced it was not possible to derive a relation between the doses above and those under the lead apron, as the doses were measured at varying places above and under the lead apron. There is no evidence that the effective dose can be estimated more accurately when an additional dosimeter is used. The present study revealed a threshold before doses under the lead apron were measured. Due to the threshold it can be concluded that the doses under the lead apron will not be underestimated easily when doses above the lead apron are used to calculate them. This is not the case when the doses above the lead apron are calculated for the doses under the lead apron.

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Boxplot of the doses (mSv) measured above the lead apron. The black line in the red box marks the median, the box demarks the 25th and 75th percentiles, and the whiskers mark the minimum and maximum observed values that are not statistical outliers. Extreme values are marked with an asterisk. The extreme values are more than three box lengths from the upper edge of the box. The box length is the interquartile range
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Fig3: Boxplot of the doses (mSv) measured above the lead apron. The black line in the red box marks the median, the box demarks the 25th and 75th percentiles, and the whiskers mark the minimum and maximum observed values that are not statistical outliers. Extreme values are marked with an asterisk. The extreme values are more than three box lengths from the upper edge of the box. The box length is the interquartile range

Mentions: In Tables 1 and 2 and in Figs. 3 and 4, the mean dose, median, and quartiles above and under the lead apron are presented for the eight radiologists. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that the doses of the eight radiologists were normally distributed (p > 0.05). The doses measured above and under the lead apron differed significantly among the eight radiologists (one-way ANOVA, p < 0.05). The Levenes test established that the variance of the doses measured above and under the lead apron of seven radiologists was equal (p > 0.05). The doses of these seven radiologists did not differ significantly (one-way ANOVA, p > 0.05). The average dose of the seven radiologists was 3.85 mSv in 4 weeks above the lead apron and 0.13 mSv in 4 weeks under the lead apron. The average dose of radiologist 5 was 1.79 mSv in 4 weeks above the lead apron and 0.07 mSv under the lead apron. The dose above the lead apron of radiologist 5 differed significantly from the doses of radiologists 6, 7, and 8 (Tamhane post hoc analysis, p < 0.05). Under the lead apron the dose of radiologist 5 differed significantly from the dose of radiologist 7 (Tamhane post hoc analysis, p < 0.05).Table 1


Evaluation of the occupational doses of interventional radiologists.

Kuipers G, Velders XL, de Winter RJ, Reekers JA, Piek JJ - Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol (2008)

Boxplot of the doses (mSv) measured above the lead apron. The black line in the red box marks the median, the box demarks the 25th and 75th percentiles, and the whiskers mark the minimum and maximum observed values that are not statistical outliers. Extreme values are marked with an asterisk. The extreme values are more than three box lengths from the upper edge of the box. The box length is the interquartile range
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2367387&req=5

Fig3: Boxplot of the doses (mSv) measured above the lead apron. The black line in the red box marks the median, the box demarks the 25th and 75th percentiles, and the whiskers mark the minimum and maximum observed values that are not statistical outliers. Extreme values are marked with an asterisk. The extreme values are more than three box lengths from the upper edge of the box. The box length is the interquartile range
Mentions: In Tables 1 and 2 and in Figs. 3 and 4, the mean dose, median, and quartiles above and under the lead apron are presented for the eight radiologists. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that the doses of the eight radiologists were normally distributed (p > 0.05). The doses measured above and under the lead apron differed significantly among the eight radiologists (one-way ANOVA, p < 0.05). The Levenes test established that the variance of the doses measured above and under the lead apron of seven radiologists was equal (p > 0.05). The doses of these seven radiologists did not differ significantly (one-way ANOVA, p > 0.05). The average dose of the seven radiologists was 3.85 mSv in 4 weeks above the lead apron and 0.13 mSv in 4 weeks under the lead apron. The average dose of radiologist 5 was 1.79 mSv in 4 weeks above the lead apron and 0.07 mSv under the lead apron. The dose above the lead apron of radiologist 5 differed significantly from the doses of radiologists 6, 7, and 8 (Tamhane post hoc analysis, p < 0.05). Under the lead apron the dose of radiologist 5 differed significantly from the dose of radiologist 7 (Tamhane post hoc analysis, p < 0.05).Table 1

Bottom Line: The doses above and under the protective aprons of seven radiologists did not differ significantly.There is no evidence that the effective dose can be estimated more accurately when an additional dosimeter is used.Due to the threshold it can be concluded that the doses under the lead apron will not be underestimated easily when doses above the lead apron are used to calculate them.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Radiation Protection Group, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, 1105 AZ, The Netherlands. g.kuipers@amc.uva.nl

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a linear relation between the doses measured above and those measured under the lead apron of the radiologists performing interventional procedures. To monitor radiation exposure the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the use of a single dosimeter under the protective apron. To determine the exposure more accurately an additional dosimeter is recommended above the protective apron. The exposure of eight radiologists was monitored with two personal dosimeters during 3 consecutive years. To measure the doses uniformly the two dosimeters were worn in a special holder attached to the lead apron. The two personal dosimeters were replaced every 4 weeks on the same day. The doses above and under the protective aprons of seven radiologists did not differ significantly. A significant lower dose above and under the protective apron was measured for one of the radiologists. During a 4-week period the average dose measured above the lead apron was 3.44 mSv (median, 3.05 mSv), while that under the 0.25-mm lead apron was 0.12 mSv (median, 0.1 mSv). The coefficients of the regression line result in the equation Y = 0.036X-0.004, with Y as the dose under the lead apron and X as the dose above the lead apron. The statistical analysis of the data established a linear relation between the doses above and those under the lead apron (R(2) = 0.59). Before the special holder was introduced it was not possible to derive a relation between the doses above and those under the lead apron, as the doses were measured at varying places above and under the lead apron. There is no evidence that the effective dose can be estimated more accurately when an additional dosimeter is used. The present study revealed a threshold before doses under the lead apron were measured. Due to the threshold it can be concluded that the doses under the lead apron will not be underestimated easily when doses above the lead apron are used to calculate them. This is not the case when the doses above the lead apron are calculated for the doses under the lead apron.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus