Limits...
Lymphangiogenesis in myocardial remodelling after infarction.

Ishikawa Y, Akishima-Fukasawa Y, Ito K, Akasaka Y, Tanaka M, Shimokawa R, Kimura-Matsumoto M, Morita H, Sato S, Kamata I, Ishii T - Histopathology (2007)

Bottom Line: BD decreased with advance of myocardial necrosis, subsequently increased at the early stage of granulation and thereafter decreased with the progression of scar formation.Vascular endothelial growth factor-C was consistently expressed in viable cardiomyocytes around the lesion in all of these stages.In myocardial remodelling after MI, lymphangiogenesis lags behind blood vessel angiogenesis; newly formed lymphatics may be involved mainly in the maturation of fibrosis and scar formation through the drainage of excessive proteins and fluid.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. yukio@med.toho-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Aims: The lymphatic system is involved in fluid homeostasis of the cardiac interstitium, but lymphangiogenesis in myocardial remodelling has not previously been examined histopathologically. The aim was to investigate by D2-40 immunohistochemistry the sequential changes in lymphatic distribution in the process of myocardial remodelling after myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods and results: Myocardial tissues in various phases of healing after MI were obtained from 40 autopsied hearts. D2-40+ lymphatic vessel density (LD) and CD34+ blood vessel density (BD) in the lesion were determined. BD decreased with advance of myocardial necrosis, subsequently increased at the early stage of granulation and thereafter decreased with the progression of scar formation. In contrast, lymphatic vessels were not detected in lesions with coagulation necrosis, and newly formed lymphatics first appeared in the early stages of granulation. A subsequent increase in LD was demonstrated in the late stages of granulation, and lymphatics remained up to the scar phase. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C was consistently expressed in viable cardiomyocytes around the lesion in all of these stages.

Conclusion: In myocardial remodelling after MI, lymphangiogenesis lags behind blood vessel angiogenesis; newly formed lymphatics may be involved mainly in the maturation of fibrosis and scar formation through the drainage of excessive proteins and fluid.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

D2-40 (a – c) and CD34 d) immunohistochemistry in the normal heart. a, D2-40+ lymphatics are abundant in the subepicardium of the normal heart. Blood vessels indicated by arrows are immunonegative for D2-40. b, Lymphatic capillaries are scattered among cardiomyocytes. c, The lumens of lymphatics adjacent to blood vessels are dilated. d, CD34+ blood capillaries are numerous among cardiomyocytes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2366023&req=5

fig01: D2-40 (a – c) and CD34 d) immunohistochemistry in the normal heart. a, D2-40+ lymphatics are abundant in the subepicardium of the normal heart. Blood vessels indicated by arrows are immunonegative for D2-40. b, Lymphatic capillaries are scattered among cardiomyocytes. c, The lumens of lymphatics adjacent to blood vessels are dilated. d, CD34+ blood capillaries are numerous among cardiomyocytes.

Mentions: In normal hearts, D2-40+ lymphatics were frequently observed in the interstitium of the subepicardium (Figure 1a). The interstitium around arteries and veins distributing in the subepicardial adipose tissue also had abundant lymphatics. In the normal myocardium, small lymphatics (lymphatic capillaries) were sporadically scattered among cardiomyocytes (Figure 1b). In the interstitium around arteries and veins running in the myocardium, relatively abundant lymphatics were distributed, and they had larger lumens than lymphatic capillaries existing among myocytes (Figure 1c). In the subendocardium, there were abundant lymphatics. These distribution patterns of lymphatics in the ventricular wall were commonly recognized in the anterior, lateral and posterior walls.


Lymphangiogenesis in myocardial remodelling after infarction.

Ishikawa Y, Akishima-Fukasawa Y, Ito K, Akasaka Y, Tanaka M, Shimokawa R, Kimura-Matsumoto M, Morita H, Sato S, Kamata I, Ishii T - Histopathology (2007)

D2-40 (a – c) and CD34 d) immunohistochemistry in the normal heart. a, D2-40+ lymphatics are abundant in the subepicardium of the normal heart. Blood vessels indicated by arrows are immunonegative for D2-40. b, Lymphatic capillaries are scattered among cardiomyocytes. c, The lumens of lymphatics adjacent to blood vessels are dilated. d, CD34+ blood capillaries are numerous among cardiomyocytes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2366023&req=5

fig01: D2-40 (a – c) and CD34 d) immunohistochemistry in the normal heart. a, D2-40+ lymphatics are abundant in the subepicardium of the normal heart. Blood vessels indicated by arrows are immunonegative for D2-40. b, Lymphatic capillaries are scattered among cardiomyocytes. c, The lumens of lymphatics adjacent to blood vessels are dilated. d, CD34+ blood capillaries are numerous among cardiomyocytes.
Mentions: In normal hearts, D2-40+ lymphatics were frequently observed in the interstitium of the subepicardium (Figure 1a). The interstitium around arteries and veins distributing in the subepicardial adipose tissue also had abundant lymphatics. In the normal myocardium, small lymphatics (lymphatic capillaries) were sporadically scattered among cardiomyocytes (Figure 1b). In the interstitium around arteries and veins running in the myocardium, relatively abundant lymphatics were distributed, and they had larger lumens than lymphatic capillaries existing among myocytes (Figure 1c). In the subendocardium, there were abundant lymphatics. These distribution patterns of lymphatics in the ventricular wall were commonly recognized in the anterior, lateral and posterior walls.

Bottom Line: BD decreased with advance of myocardial necrosis, subsequently increased at the early stage of granulation and thereafter decreased with the progression of scar formation.Vascular endothelial growth factor-C was consistently expressed in viable cardiomyocytes around the lesion in all of these stages.In myocardial remodelling after MI, lymphangiogenesis lags behind blood vessel angiogenesis; newly formed lymphatics may be involved mainly in the maturation of fibrosis and scar formation through the drainage of excessive proteins and fluid.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. yukio@med.toho-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Aims: The lymphatic system is involved in fluid homeostasis of the cardiac interstitium, but lymphangiogenesis in myocardial remodelling has not previously been examined histopathologically. The aim was to investigate by D2-40 immunohistochemistry the sequential changes in lymphatic distribution in the process of myocardial remodelling after myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods and results: Myocardial tissues in various phases of healing after MI were obtained from 40 autopsied hearts. D2-40+ lymphatic vessel density (LD) and CD34+ blood vessel density (BD) in the lesion were determined. BD decreased with advance of myocardial necrosis, subsequently increased at the early stage of granulation and thereafter decreased with the progression of scar formation. In contrast, lymphatic vessels were not detected in lesions with coagulation necrosis, and newly formed lymphatics first appeared in the early stages of granulation. A subsequent increase in LD was demonstrated in the late stages of granulation, and lymphatics remained up to the scar phase. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C was consistently expressed in viable cardiomyocytes around the lesion in all of these stages.

Conclusion: In myocardial remodelling after MI, lymphangiogenesis lags behind blood vessel angiogenesis; newly formed lymphatics may be involved mainly in the maturation of fibrosis and scar formation through the drainage of excessive proteins and fluid.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus