Limits...
Rationale for multiple risk intervention: the need to move from theory to practice.

Erhardt LR - Vasc Health Risk Manag (2007)

Bottom Line: These factors, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, obesity, and insulin resistance have a continuous, progressive impact on total CV risk, with higher levels and numbers of factors translating into greater risk.Effective and well-tolerated pharmacotherapies are available for the treatment of risk-factors.Patient compliance and persistence to available therapies is also necessary for successful modulation of CVD risk.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Medicine, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden. leif.erhardt@med.lu.se

ABSTRACT
Incidence of cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disease is increasing, in parallel with associated risk factors. These factors, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, obesity, and insulin resistance have a continuous, progressive impact on total CV risk, with higher levels and numbers of factors translating into greater risk. Evaluation of all known modifiable risk factors, to provide a detailed total CV disease (CVD) and metabolic risk-status profile is therefore necessary to ensure appropriate treatment of each factor within the context of a multifactorial, global approach to prevention of CVD and metabolic disease. Effective and well-tolerated pharmacotherapies are available for the treatment of risk-factors. Realization of the potential health and economic benefits of effective risk factor management requires improved risk factor screening, early and aggressive treatment, improved public health support (ie, education and guidelines), and appropriate therapeutic interventions based on current guidelines and accurate risk assessment. Patient compliance and persistence to available therapies is also necessary for successful modulation of CVD risk.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Relative risk for cardiovascular disease mortality in men (aged 42 and 60 years at baseline) with and without metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2002 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, et al 2002. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA, 288:2709–16.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2350141&req=5

fig2: Relative risk for cardiovascular disease mortality in men (aged 42 and 60 years at baseline) with and without metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2002 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, et al 2002. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA, 288:2709–16.

Mentions: The clinical relevance of risk factor clustering is also well illustrated in patients with the metabolic syndrome. In a study of men aged between 42–60 years, the risk of CVD mortality over approximately 11 years increased at a considerably higher rate when they had metabolic syndrome (Figure 2) (Lakka et al 2002). Such patients are at considerable risk of developing atherosclerosis-related diseases, including a two- to four-fold increased risk of stroke and a three- to four-fold increased risk of MI compared with those without the metabolic syndrome (Lakka et al 2002; Ninomiya et al 2004). The metabolic syndrome also increases the risk of developing diabetes five- to nine-fold (Hanson et al 2002; Laaksonen et al 2002).


Rationale for multiple risk intervention: the need to move from theory to practice.

Erhardt LR - Vasc Health Risk Manag (2007)

Relative risk for cardiovascular disease mortality in men (aged 42 and 60 years at baseline) with and without metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2002 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, et al 2002. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA, 288:2709–16.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2350141&req=5

fig2: Relative risk for cardiovascular disease mortality in men (aged 42 and 60 years at baseline) with and without metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2002 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, et al 2002. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA, 288:2709–16.
Mentions: The clinical relevance of risk factor clustering is also well illustrated in patients with the metabolic syndrome. In a study of men aged between 42–60 years, the risk of CVD mortality over approximately 11 years increased at a considerably higher rate when they had metabolic syndrome (Figure 2) (Lakka et al 2002). Such patients are at considerable risk of developing atherosclerosis-related diseases, including a two- to four-fold increased risk of stroke and a three- to four-fold increased risk of MI compared with those without the metabolic syndrome (Lakka et al 2002; Ninomiya et al 2004). The metabolic syndrome also increases the risk of developing diabetes five- to nine-fold (Hanson et al 2002; Laaksonen et al 2002).

Bottom Line: These factors, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, obesity, and insulin resistance have a continuous, progressive impact on total CV risk, with higher levels and numbers of factors translating into greater risk.Effective and well-tolerated pharmacotherapies are available for the treatment of risk-factors.Patient compliance and persistence to available therapies is also necessary for successful modulation of CVD risk.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Medicine, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden. leif.erhardt@med.lu.se

ABSTRACT
Incidence of cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disease is increasing, in parallel with associated risk factors. These factors, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, obesity, and insulin resistance have a continuous, progressive impact on total CV risk, with higher levels and numbers of factors translating into greater risk. Evaluation of all known modifiable risk factors, to provide a detailed total CV disease (CVD) and metabolic risk-status profile is therefore necessary to ensure appropriate treatment of each factor within the context of a multifactorial, global approach to prevention of CVD and metabolic disease. Effective and well-tolerated pharmacotherapies are available for the treatment of risk-factors. Realization of the potential health and economic benefits of effective risk factor management requires improved risk factor screening, early and aggressive treatment, improved public health support (ie, education and guidelines), and appropriate therapeutic interventions based on current guidelines and accurate risk assessment. Patient compliance and persistence to available therapies is also necessary for successful modulation of CVD risk.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus