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Hepatocyte permissiveness to Plasmodium infection is conveyed by a short and structurally conserved region of the CD81 large extracellular domain.

Yalaoui S, Zougbédé S, Charrin S, Silvie O, Arduise C, Farhati K, Boucheix C, Mazier D, Rubinstein E, Froissard P - PLoS Pathog. (2008)

Bottom Line: Still, the molecular mechanisms underlying sporozoite invasion are largely unknown.By site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated the key role of a solvent-exposed region around residue D137 within this domain.This study has uncovered a new functionally important region of CD81, independent of HCV E2 envelope protein binding domain, and further suggests that CD81 may not interact directly with a parasite ligand during Plasmodium infection, but instead may regulate the function of a yet unknown partner protein.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR S511, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
Invasion of hepatocytes by Plasmodium sporozoites is a prerequisite for establishment of a malaria infection, and thus represents an attractive target for anti-malarial interventions. Still, the molecular mechanisms underlying sporozoite invasion are largely unknown. We have previously reported that the tetraspanin CD81, a known receptor for the hepatitis C virus (HCV), is required on hepatocytes for infection by sporozoites of several Plasmodium species. Here we have characterized CD81 molecular determinants required for infection of hepatocytic cells by P. yoelii sporozoites. Using CD9/CD81 chimeras, we have identified in CD81 a 21 amino acid stretch located in a domain structurally conserved in the large extracellular loop of tetraspanins, which is sufficient in an otherwise CD9 background to confer susceptibility to P. yoelii infection. By site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated the key role of a solvent-exposed region around residue D137 within this domain. A mAb that requires this region for optimal binding did not block infection, in contrast to other CD81 mAbs. This study has uncovered a new functionally important region of CD81, independent of HCV E2 envelope protein binding domain, and further suggests that CD81 may not interact directly with a parasite ligand during Plasmodium infection, but instead may regulate the function of a yet unknown partner protein.

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21 residues of CD81 in a CD9 backbone are sufficient to render hepatocytic cells susceptible to P. yoelii sporozoites infection.A: Amino acid sequence alignment of CD9, CD81 and chimeras. Only the sequence of the large extracellular loop of the different chimeras is shown. The origin of the flanking domains (TM3 and TM4) is shown on both sides of the sequence. The position of CD81 helices are indicated on the top of the alignment. CD81 residues are shown in red capital letters and CD9 residues in blue small letters. The CCG consensus site and other conserved cysteines, as well as a functionally important site (VVDDD) are underlined B: HepG2-A16 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids expressing CD9, CD81, or CD81/CD9 chimeras and infected two days later with P. yoelii sporozoites. After two days incubation, the number of EEF-infected cells in triplicate wells was determined by immunofluorescence. Results are expressed as mean±s.d. **, p<0.01 as compared to mock-transfected cells. C: HepG2-A16 cells stably expressing CD81, CD9, CD81ccg9 or CD9[81B] were infected with P. yoelii sporozoites. After two days incubation, the number of EEF-infected cells was determined in triplicate wells by immunofluorescence. Results are expressed as mean±s.d. **, p<0.01 as compared to mock-transfected cells.
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ppat-1000010-g004: 21 residues of CD81 in a CD9 backbone are sufficient to render hepatocytic cells susceptible to P. yoelii sporozoites infection.A: Amino acid sequence alignment of CD9, CD81 and chimeras. Only the sequence of the large extracellular loop of the different chimeras is shown. The origin of the flanking domains (TM3 and TM4) is shown on both sides of the sequence. The position of CD81 helices are indicated on the top of the alignment. CD81 residues are shown in red capital letters and CD9 residues in blue small letters. The CCG consensus site and other conserved cysteines, as well as a functionally important site (VVDDD) are underlined B: HepG2-A16 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids expressing CD9, CD81, or CD81/CD9 chimeras and infected two days later with P. yoelii sporozoites. After two days incubation, the number of EEF-infected cells in triplicate wells was determined by immunofluorescence. Results are expressed as mean±s.d. **, p<0.01 as compared to mock-transfected cells. C: HepG2-A16 cells stably expressing CD81, CD9, CD81ccg9 or CD9[81B] were infected with P. yoelii sporozoites. After two days incubation, the number of EEF-infected cells was determined in triplicate wells by immunofluorescence. Results are expressed as mean±s.d. **, p<0.01 as compared to mock-transfected cells.

Mentions: Additional chimeras were generated to determine whether other CD81 residues in either the A or the B helix contribute to the ability of CD81 to support infection by P. yoelii sporozoites (Fig. 4). In these chimeras, swaps between CD9 and CD81 were made nearby the A–B junction (Fig. 4A). A CD9/CD81 chimera (CD9A-81BCDE) where the sequence switch was made immediately before D138 was not functional (Fig. 4B). This was expected since in this chimera D137 was replaced by the corresponding K residue in CD9. The chimera in which the sequence switch was made 3 residues before the predicted end of the A helix (before the VVD sequence in CD81: CD9A'-81BCDE) was on the contrary completely functional (Fig. 4B). Altogether these results confirm the importance of CD81 D137 residue and indicate that except for the last 3 residues, the A helix of CD81 can be replaced by that of CD9 without altering the ability to support P. yoelii infection.


Hepatocyte permissiveness to Plasmodium infection is conveyed by a short and structurally conserved region of the CD81 large extracellular domain.

Yalaoui S, Zougbédé S, Charrin S, Silvie O, Arduise C, Farhati K, Boucheix C, Mazier D, Rubinstein E, Froissard P - PLoS Pathog. (2008)

21 residues of CD81 in a CD9 backbone are sufficient to render hepatocytic cells susceptible to P. yoelii sporozoites infection.A: Amino acid sequence alignment of CD9, CD81 and chimeras. Only the sequence of the large extracellular loop of the different chimeras is shown. The origin of the flanking domains (TM3 and TM4) is shown on both sides of the sequence. The position of CD81 helices are indicated on the top of the alignment. CD81 residues are shown in red capital letters and CD9 residues in blue small letters. The CCG consensus site and other conserved cysteines, as well as a functionally important site (VVDDD) are underlined B: HepG2-A16 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids expressing CD9, CD81, or CD81/CD9 chimeras and infected two days later with P. yoelii sporozoites. After two days incubation, the number of EEF-infected cells in triplicate wells was determined by immunofluorescence. Results are expressed as mean±s.d. **, p<0.01 as compared to mock-transfected cells. C: HepG2-A16 cells stably expressing CD81, CD9, CD81ccg9 or CD9[81B] were infected with P. yoelii sporozoites. After two days incubation, the number of EEF-infected cells was determined in triplicate wells by immunofluorescence. Results are expressed as mean±s.d. **, p<0.01 as compared to mock-transfected cells.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2279262&req=5

ppat-1000010-g004: 21 residues of CD81 in a CD9 backbone are sufficient to render hepatocytic cells susceptible to P. yoelii sporozoites infection.A: Amino acid sequence alignment of CD9, CD81 and chimeras. Only the sequence of the large extracellular loop of the different chimeras is shown. The origin of the flanking domains (TM3 and TM4) is shown on both sides of the sequence. The position of CD81 helices are indicated on the top of the alignment. CD81 residues are shown in red capital letters and CD9 residues in blue small letters. The CCG consensus site and other conserved cysteines, as well as a functionally important site (VVDDD) are underlined B: HepG2-A16 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids expressing CD9, CD81, or CD81/CD9 chimeras and infected two days later with P. yoelii sporozoites. After two days incubation, the number of EEF-infected cells in triplicate wells was determined by immunofluorescence. Results are expressed as mean±s.d. **, p<0.01 as compared to mock-transfected cells. C: HepG2-A16 cells stably expressing CD81, CD9, CD81ccg9 or CD9[81B] were infected with P. yoelii sporozoites. After two days incubation, the number of EEF-infected cells was determined in triplicate wells by immunofluorescence. Results are expressed as mean±s.d. **, p<0.01 as compared to mock-transfected cells.
Mentions: Additional chimeras were generated to determine whether other CD81 residues in either the A or the B helix contribute to the ability of CD81 to support infection by P. yoelii sporozoites (Fig. 4). In these chimeras, swaps between CD9 and CD81 were made nearby the A–B junction (Fig. 4A). A CD9/CD81 chimera (CD9A-81BCDE) where the sequence switch was made immediately before D138 was not functional (Fig. 4B). This was expected since in this chimera D137 was replaced by the corresponding K residue in CD9. The chimera in which the sequence switch was made 3 residues before the predicted end of the A helix (before the VVD sequence in CD81: CD9A'-81BCDE) was on the contrary completely functional (Fig. 4B). Altogether these results confirm the importance of CD81 D137 residue and indicate that except for the last 3 residues, the A helix of CD81 can be replaced by that of CD9 without altering the ability to support P. yoelii infection.

Bottom Line: Still, the molecular mechanisms underlying sporozoite invasion are largely unknown.By site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated the key role of a solvent-exposed region around residue D137 within this domain.This study has uncovered a new functionally important region of CD81, independent of HCV E2 envelope protein binding domain, and further suggests that CD81 may not interact directly with a parasite ligand during Plasmodium infection, but instead may regulate the function of a yet unknown partner protein.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR S511, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
Invasion of hepatocytes by Plasmodium sporozoites is a prerequisite for establishment of a malaria infection, and thus represents an attractive target for anti-malarial interventions. Still, the molecular mechanisms underlying sporozoite invasion are largely unknown. We have previously reported that the tetraspanin CD81, a known receptor for the hepatitis C virus (HCV), is required on hepatocytes for infection by sporozoites of several Plasmodium species. Here we have characterized CD81 molecular determinants required for infection of hepatocytic cells by P. yoelii sporozoites. Using CD9/CD81 chimeras, we have identified in CD81 a 21 amino acid stretch located in a domain structurally conserved in the large extracellular loop of tetraspanins, which is sufficient in an otherwise CD9 background to confer susceptibility to P. yoelii infection. By site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated the key role of a solvent-exposed region around residue D137 within this domain. A mAb that requires this region for optimal binding did not block infection, in contrast to other CD81 mAbs. This study has uncovered a new functionally important region of CD81, independent of HCV E2 envelope protein binding domain, and further suggests that CD81 may not interact directly with a parasite ligand during Plasmodium infection, but instead may regulate the function of a yet unknown partner protein.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus