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Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.

Delgado S, Erickson BR, Agudo R, Blair PJ, Vallejo E, Albariño CG, Vargas J, Comer JA, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Olson JG, Nichol ST - PLoS Pathog. (2008)

Bottom Line: A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF) cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004.Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs.In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Salud de Eterazama, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

ABSTRACT
A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF) cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá). RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of Bolivia showing location of the Chapare virus-associated HF case relative to the Beni region where Machupo virus-associated HF cases originate.The Beni Department boundary is depicted by the checkered line. Multiple Machupo isolates have been recorded from the Beni Department. The single Latino and Chapare virus locations are labeled and represented as dots.
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ppat-1000047-g001: Map of Bolivia showing location of the Chapare virus-associated HF case relative to the Beni region where Machupo virus-associated HF cases originate.The Beni Department boundary is depicted by the checkered line. Multiple Machupo isolates have been recorded from the Beni Department. The single Latino and Chapare virus locations are labeled and represented as dots.

Mentions: The family Arenaviridae is composed of largely rodent-borne viruses which are divided into Old World and New World complexes [1],[2]. Lassa and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) viruses are considered the most important of Old World arenaviruses due to their association with severe disease. The New World complex is divided into 3 major Clades (A, B and C), with Clade B containing all the hemorrhagic fever (HF) associated viruses [3],[4],[5],[6]. These are Junín, Machupo, Guanarito and Sabiá viruses, the cause of Argentine, Bolivian, Venezuelan, and Brazilian HF, respectively [1]. Three of these viruses, Junín, Machupo, and Guanarito, can be associated with large HF outbreaks and untreated case fatalities can be in excess of 30%. The clinical picture is similar for each of these diseases. Onset of symptoms follows an incubation period of 1–2 weeks. Initial symptoms often include fever, malaise, myalgia and anorexia, followed approx. 3–4 days later by headache, back pain, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and severe prostration. Hemorrhagic and neurologic symptoms, including petechiae and bleeding gums, tremors, and lethargy are common. About a third of untreated cases go on to develop more severe neurologic and/or hemorrhagic symptoms, with diffuse echymoses, and bleeding from mucous membranes or puncture sites, and/or delirium, coma and convulsions. Machupo virus, vectored by Calomys callosus rodents [7], is the only known pathogenic arenavirus found in Bolivia, although another arenavirus, Latino virus, has also been isolated from Calomys callosus in Bolivia [8]. Despite broad distribution of this rodent host, which is thought to include the lowlands of Bolivia, east-central Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina [9], Machupo virus-associated HF cases have originated only in the Beni department in northeastern Bolivia (Figure 1). We report here the investigation of a fatal HF case which occurred near Cochabamba, Cochabamba Department, Bolivia in December, 2003, and identify the associated arenavirus as a unique newly discovered virus, Chapare virus.


Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.

Delgado S, Erickson BR, Agudo R, Blair PJ, Vallejo E, Albariño CG, Vargas J, Comer JA, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Olson JG, Nichol ST - PLoS Pathog. (2008)

Map of Bolivia showing location of the Chapare virus-associated HF case relative to the Beni region where Machupo virus-associated HF cases originate.The Beni Department boundary is depicted by the checkered line. Multiple Machupo isolates have been recorded from the Beni Department. The single Latino and Chapare virus locations are labeled and represented as dots.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2277458&req=5

ppat-1000047-g001: Map of Bolivia showing location of the Chapare virus-associated HF case relative to the Beni region where Machupo virus-associated HF cases originate.The Beni Department boundary is depicted by the checkered line. Multiple Machupo isolates have been recorded from the Beni Department. The single Latino and Chapare virus locations are labeled and represented as dots.
Mentions: The family Arenaviridae is composed of largely rodent-borne viruses which are divided into Old World and New World complexes [1],[2]. Lassa and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) viruses are considered the most important of Old World arenaviruses due to their association with severe disease. The New World complex is divided into 3 major Clades (A, B and C), with Clade B containing all the hemorrhagic fever (HF) associated viruses [3],[4],[5],[6]. These are Junín, Machupo, Guanarito and Sabiá viruses, the cause of Argentine, Bolivian, Venezuelan, and Brazilian HF, respectively [1]. Three of these viruses, Junín, Machupo, and Guanarito, can be associated with large HF outbreaks and untreated case fatalities can be in excess of 30%. The clinical picture is similar for each of these diseases. Onset of symptoms follows an incubation period of 1–2 weeks. Initial symptoms often include fever, malaise, myalgia and anorexia, followed approx. 3–4 days later by headache, back pain, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and severe prostration. Hemorrhagic and neurologic symptoms, including petechiae and bleeding gums, tremors, and lethargy are common. About a third of untreated cases go on to develop more severe neurologic and/or hemorrhagic symptoms, with diffuse echymoses, and bleeding from mucous membranes or puncture sites, and/or delirium, coma and convulsions. Machupo virus, vectored by Calomys callosus rodents [7], is the only known pathogenic arenavirus found in Bolivia, although another arenavirus, Latino virus, has also been isolated from Calomys callosus in Bolivia [8]. Despite broad distribution of this rodent host, which is thought to include the lowlands of Bolivia, east-central Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina [9], Machupo virus-associated HF cases have originated only in the Beni department in northeastern Bolivia (Figure 1). We report here the investigation of a fatal HF case which occurred near Cochabamba, Cochabamba Department, Bolivia in December, 2003, and identify the associated arenavirus as a unique newly discovered virus, Chapare virus.

Bottom Line: A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF) cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004.Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs.In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Salud de Eterazama, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

ABSTRACT
A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF) cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá). RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus