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Riding the wave: reconciling the roles of disease and climate change in amphibian declines.

Lips KR, Diffendorfer J, Mendelson JR, Sears MW - PLoS Biol. (2008)

Bottom Line: Available data support the hypothesis of multiple introductions of this invasive pathogen into South America and subsequent spread along the primary Andean cordilleras.Additional analyses found no evidence to support the hypothesis that climate change has been driving outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis, as has been posited in the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis.Future studies should increase retrospective surveys of museum specimens from throughout the Andes and should study the landscape genetics of Bd to map fine-scale patterns of geographic spread to identify transmission routes and processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, United States of America. klips@zoology.siu.edu

ABSTRACT
We review the evidence for the role of climate change in triggering disease outbreaks of chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. Both climatic anomalies and disease-related extirpations are recent phenomena, and effects of both are especially noticeable at high elevations in tropical areas, making it difficult to determine whether they are operating separately or synergistically. We compiled reports of amphibian declines from Lower Central America and Andean South America to create maps and statistical models to test our hypothesis of spatiotemporal spread of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and to update the elevational patterns of decline in frogs belonging to the genus Atelopus. We evaluated claims of climate change influencing the spread of Bd by including error into estimates of the relationship between air temperature and last year observed. Available data support the hypothesis of multiple introductions of this invasive pathogen into South America and subsequent spread along the primary Andean cordilleras. Additional analyses found no evidence to support the hypothesis that climate change has been driving outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis, as has been posited in the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis. Future studies should increase retrospective surveys of museum specimens from throughout the Andes and should study the landscape genetics of Bd to map fine-scale patterns of geographic spread to identify transmission routes and processes.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Percentage of Atelopus Species Declined or Extinct by Elevation in our Study AreaBars show the number of species at each elevation category while gray depicts the number of species in decline and white depicts stable species. The percentage of species in decline is written on each bar. Total number of species included in the analysis was 51.
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pbio-0060072-g007: Percentage of Atelopus Species Declined or Extinct by Elevation in our Study AreaBars show the number of species at each elevation category while gray depicts the number of species in decline and white depicts stable species. The percentage of species in decline is written on each bar. Total number of species included in the analysis was 51.

Mentions: An increasing percentage of Atelopus species declined as elevation increased (chi-square = 13.16, df = 2, p = 0.0014), with 100% of species occurring above 1,000 m having declined prior to 2004, while only 30% of those species near sea-level declined (Figure 7).


Riding the wave: reconciling the roles of disease and climate change in amphibian declines.

Lips KR, Diffendorfer J, Mendelson JR, Sears MW - PLoS Biol. (2008)

Percentage of Atelopus Species Declined or Extinct by Elevation in our Study AreaBars show the number of species at each elevation category while gray depicts the number of species in decline and white depicts stable species. The percentage of species in decline is written on each bar. Total number of species included in the analysis was 51.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2270328&req=5

pbio-0060072-g007: Percentage of Atelopus Species Declined or Extinct by Elevation in our Study AreaBars show the number of species at each elevation category while gray depicts the number of species in decline and white depicts stable species. The percentage of species in decline is written on each bar. Total number of species included in the analysis was 51.
Mentions: An increasing percentage of Atelopus species declined as elevation increased (chi-square = 13.16, df = 2, p = 0.0014), with 100% of species occurring above 1,000 m having declined prior to 2004, while only 30% of those species near sea-level declined (Figure 7).

Bottom Line: Available data support the hypothesis of multiple introductions of this invasive pathogen into South America and subsequent spread along the primary Andean cordilleras.Additional analyses found no evidence to support the hypothesis that climate change has been driving outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis, as has been posited in the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis.Future studies should increase retrospective surveys of museum specimens from throughout the Andes and should study the landscape genetics of Bd to map fine-scale patterns of geographic spread to identify transmission routes and processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, United States of America. klips@zoology.siu.edu

ABSTRACT
We review the evidence for the role of climate change in triggering disease outbreaks of chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. Both climatic anomalies and disease-related extirpations are recent phenomena, and effects of both are especially noticeable at high elevations in tropical areas, making it difficult to determine whether they are operating separately or synergistically. We compiled reports of amphibian declines from Lower Central America and Andean South America to create maps and statistical models to test our hypothesis of spatiotemporal spread of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and to update the elevational patterns of decline in frogs belonging to the genus Atelopus. We evaluated claims of climate change influencing the spread of Bd by including error into estimates of the relationship between air temperature and last year observed. Available data support the hypothesis of multiple introductions of this invasive pathogen into South America and subsequent spread along the primary Andean cordilleras. Additional analyses found no evidence to support the hypothesis that climate change has been driving outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis, as has been posited in the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis. Future studies should increase retrospective surveys of museum specimens from throughout the Andes and should study the landscape genetics of Bd to map fine-scale patterns of geographic spread to identify transmission routes and processes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus