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Transcriptional analysis of Pinus sylvestris roots challenged with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor.

Heller G, Adomas A, Li G, Osborne J, van Zyl L, Sederoff R, Finlay RD, Stenlid J, Asiegbu FO - BMC Plant Biol. (2008)

Bottom Line: The results reveal significant differential expression of a total of 236 ESTs, 96 transcripts differentially abundant after 1 day of physical contact with the fungus, 134 transcripts after 5 days and only 6 after 15 days at early stages of mantle formation on emerging lateral roots.The results highlight similarities with other studies based on angiosperm model systems, nevertheless some differences were found in the timing and spatial scale of gene regulation during ectomycorrhiza development in gymnosperms.The present study has identified a number of potentially important molecular events responsible for the initiation and regulation of biochemical, physiological and morphological changes during development of a fully functional symbiosis that are relevant for gymnosperm hosts.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agriculture, Uppsala, Sweden. Gregory.Heller@mykopat.slu.se

ABSTRACT

Background: Symbiotic ectomycorrhizal associations of fungi with forest trees play important and economically significant roles in the nutrition, growth and health of boreal forest trees, as well as in nutrient cycling. The ecology and physiology of ectomycorrhizal associations with Pinus sp are very well documented but very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these mutualistic interactions with gymnosperms as compared to angiosperms.

Results: Using a micro-array approach, the relative abundance of 2109 EST transcripts during interaction of Pinus sylvestris roots with the ectomycorrhizal fungus was profiled. The results reveal significant differential expression of a total of 236 ESTs, 96 transcripts differentially abundant after 1 day of physical contact with the fungus, 134 transcripts after 5 days and only 6 after 15 days at early stages of mantle formation on emerging lateral roots. A subset of cell wall modification and stress related genes was further assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR at late stages of mycorrhizal development coinciding with Hartig net formation. The results reveal down regulation of gene transcripts involved in general defence mechanism (e.g. antimicrobial peptide) as well as those involved in cell wall modification (e.g. glycine rich protein, xyloglucan endo transglycosylase).

Conclusion: This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the transcriptome of the plant partner in the Pinus sylvestris - Laccaria bicolor model system. We identified 236 ESTs which are potentially important for molecular regulation of a functional symbiotic association in conifer host. The results highlight similarities with other studies based on angiosperm model systems, nevertheless some differences were found in the timing and spatial scale of gene regulation during ectomycorrhiza development in gymnosperms. The present study has identified a number of potentially important molecular events responsible for the initiation and regulation of biochemical, physiological and morphological changes during development of a fully functional symbiosis that are relevant for gymnosperm hosts.

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Hierarchical clustering of micro-array results. Hierarchical clustering of 236 transcripts from P. sylvestris expressed in the roots in response to the presence of the ectomycorrhizal fungus L. bicolor. Each row illustrates the expression profile of each of the significantly expressed genes (identified by mixed model analysis). Light red to deep red indicates increasing levels of expression and light blue to deep blue represents decreasing levels of expression). These ESTs have been divided into 8 regulatory patterns, as indicated by the numbers 1–8.
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Figure 3: Hierarchical clustering of micro-array results. Hierarchical clustering of 236 transcripts from P. sylvestris expressed in the roots in response to the presence of the ectomycorrhizal fungus L. bicolor. Each row illustrates the expression profile of each of the significantly expressed genes (identified by mixed model analysis). Light red to deep red indicates increasing levels of expression and light blue to deep blue represents decreasing levels of expression). These ESTs have been divided into 8 regulatory patterns, as indicated by the numbers 1–8.

Mentions: The 236 genes that were differentially expressed were grouped according to a hierarchical cluster analysis (Fig. 3). Within the clusters, eight different expression patterns were identified. Cluster 1 contains genes that were down regulated at the initial phase of interaction but which showed no significant differential expression at the other time points (5 and 15 days). The genes identified within this cluster include those encoding secreted peroxidase and associated with disease resistance (CC-NBS-LRR, TIR-NBS-LRR). The second cluster contains genes significantly induced at 1 d.p.i. but with no differential expression after 5 and 15 days (e.g. H+ transporting ATPase, PREG-like protein, laccases). In addition, several ESTs coding for cell rescue and defence responses are also present in this cluster as well as an MLO protein homologue which plays an important role in recognition by the plant during contact with pathogenic fungi.


Transcriptional analysis of Pinus sylvestris roots challenged with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor.

Heller G, Adomas A, Li G, Osborne J, van Zyl L, Sederoff R, Finlay RD, Stenlid J, Asiegbu FO - BMC Plant Biol. (2008)

Hierarchical clustering of micro-array results. Hierarchical clustering of 236 transcripts from P. sylvestris expressed in the roots in response to the presence of the ectomycorrhizal fungus L. bicolor. Each row illustrates the expression profile of each of the significantly expressed genes (identified by mixed model analysis). Light red to deep red indicates increasing levels of expression and light blue to deep blue represents decreasing levels of expression). These ESTs have been divided into 8 regulatory patterns, as indicated by the numbers 1–8.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2268937&req=5

Figure 3: Hierarchical clustering of micro-array results. Hierarchical clustering of 236 transcripts from P. sylvestris expressed in the roots in response to the presence of the ectomycorrhizal fungus L. bicolor. Each row illustrates the expression profile of each of the significantly expressed genes (identified by mixed model analysis). Light red to deep red indicates increasing levels of expression and light blue to deep blue represents decreasing levels of expression). These ESTs have been divided into 8 regulatory patterns, as indicated by the numbers 1–8.
Mentions: The 236 genes that were differentially expressed were grouped according to a hierarchical cluster analysis (Fig. 3). Within the clusters, eight different expression patterns were identified. Cluster 1 contains genes that were down regulated at the initial phase of interaction but which showed no significant differential expression at the other time points (5 and 15 days). The genes identified within this cluster include those encoding secreted peroxidase and associated with disease resistance (CC-NBS-LRR, TIR-NBS-LRR). The second cluster contains genes significantly induced at 1 d.p.i. but with no differential expression after 5 and 15 days (e.g. H+ transporting ATPase, PREG-like protein, laccases). In addition, several ESTs coding for cell rescue and defence responses are also present in this cluster as well as an MLO protein homologue which plays an important role in recognition by the plant during contact with pathogenic fungi.

Bottom Line: The results reveal significant differential expression of a total of 236 ESTs, 96 transcripts differentially abundant after 1 day of physical contact with the fungus, 134 transcripts after 5 days and only 6 after 15 days at early stages of mantle formation on emerging lateral roots.The results highlight similarities with other studies based on angiosperm model systems, nevertheless some differences were found in the timing and spatial scale of gene regulation during ectomycorrhiza development in gymnosperms.The present study has identified a number of potentially important molecular events responsible for the initiation and regulation of biochemical, physiological and morphological changes during development of a fully functional symbiosis that are relevant for gymnosperm hosts.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agriculture, Uppsala, Sweden. Gregory.Heller@mykopat.slu.se

ABSTRACT

Background: Symbiotic ectomycorrhizal associations of fungi with forest trees play important and economically significant roles in the nutrition, growth and health of boreal forest trees, as well as in nutrient cycling. The ecology and physiology of ectomycorrhizal associations with Pinus sp are very well documented but very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these mutualistic interactions with gymnosperms as compared to angiosperms.

Results: Using a micro-array approach, the relative abundance of 2109 EST transcripts during interaction of Pinus sylvestris roots with the ectomycorrhizal fungus was profiled. The results reveal significant differential expression of a total of 236 ESTs, 96 transcripts differentially abundant after 1 day of physical contact with the fungus, 134 transcripts after 5 days and only 6 after 15 days at early stages of mantle formation on emerging lateral roots. A subset of cell wall modification and stress related genes was further assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR at late stages of mycorrhizal development coinciding with Hartig net formation. The results reveal down regulation of gene transcripts involved in general defence mechanism (e.g. antimicrobial peptide) as well as those involved in cell wall modification (e.g. glycine rich protein, xyloglucan endo transglycosylase).

Conclusion: This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the transcriptome of the plant partner in the Pinus sylvestris - Laccaria bicolor model system. We identified 236 ESTs which are potentially important for molecular regulation of a functional symbiotic association in conifer host. The results highlight similarities with other studies based on angiosperm model systems, nevertheless some differences were found in the timing and spatial scale of gene regulation during ectomycorrhiza development in gymnosperms. The present study has identified a number of potentially important molecular events responsible for the initiation and regulation of biochemical, physiological and morphological changes during development of a fully functional symbiosis that are relevant for gymnosperm hosts.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus