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Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) survey in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes.

Miller ST, Elasy TA - BMC Public Health (2008)

Bottom Line: A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1) a lack of confidence subscale, and 2) a negative emotional consequences subscale.The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively.Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94) internal consistency measures.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgery, Center for Women's Health Research, Meharry Medical College, Nashville TN, USA. smiller@mmc.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131) ranging from 21-50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern community health centers. Participants completed the PAID, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (SDSCA). Factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and construct validation facilitated psychometric evaluation.

Results: A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1) a lack of confidence subscale, and 2) a negative emotional consequences subscale. The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively. Relationships with measures of depression and diabetes self-care supported construct validity of both subscales. Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94) internal consistency measures.

Conclusion: A psychometrically sound two-factor solution to the PAID survey is identified in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Lack of confidence in and negative emotional consequences of diabetes self-care implementation provide a better understanding of determinants of glycemic control and weight than an aggregate of the two scales.

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Relationship Between Negative Emotional Consequences of Self-Care Implementation and Body Mass Index.
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Figure 2: Relationship Between Negative Emotional Consequences of Self-Care Implementation and Body Mass Index.

Mentions: Moreover, our 2-factor solution revealed a significant positive association between our 2nd subscale, "Negative Emotional Consequences of Self-care Implementation" and BMI. This association is clinically relevant given the emerging obesity epidemic among African American women [15] and the disproportionate diabetes burden among African American women [2]. For example, items in the Emotional Consequences subscale represent the emotional consequences of implementing a diabetes self-care plan. Figure 2 illustrates this relationship. It shows that implementing a diabetes self-care plan could possibly result in negative emotions that might, in turn, impact self-care. Further, the degree to which specific components of the self-care plan are implemented can negatively influence BMI.


Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) survey in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes.

Miller ST, Elasy TA - BMC Public Health (2008)

Relationship Between Negative Emotional Consequences of Self-Care Implementation and Body Mass Index.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2268930&req=5

Figure 2: Relationship Between Negative Emotional Consequences of Self-Care Implementation and Body Mass Index.
Mentions: Moreover, our 2-factor solution revealed a significant positive association between our 2nd subscale, "Negative Emotional Consequences of Self-care Implementation" and BMI. This association is clinically relevant given the emerging obesity epidemic among African American women [15] and the disproportionate diabetes burden among African American women [2]. For example, items in the Emotional Consequences subscale represent the emotional consequences of implementing a diabetes self-care plan. Figure 2 illustrates this relationship. It shows that implementing a diabetes self-care plan could possibly result in negative emotions that might, in turn, impact self-care. Further, the degree to which specific components of the self-care plan are implemented can negatively influence BMI.

Bottom Line: A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1) a lack of confidence subscale, and 2) a negative emotional consequences subscale.The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively.Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94) internal consistency measures.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgery, Center for Women's Health Research, Meharry Medical College, Nashville TN, USA. smiller@mmc.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131) ranging from 21-50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern community health centers. Participants completed the PAID, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (SDSCA). Factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and construct validation facilitated psychometric evaluation.

Results: A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1) a lack of confidence subscale, and 2) a negative emotional consequences subscale. The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively. Relationships with measures of depression and diabetes self-care supported construct validity of both subscales. Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94) internal consistency measures.

Conclusion: A psychometrically sound two-factor solution to the PAID survey is identified in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Lack of confidence in and negative emotional consequences of diabetes self-care implementation provide a better understanding of determinants of glycemic control and weight than an aggregate of the two scales.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus