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Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Alam AY, Iqbal A, Mohamud KB, Laporte RE, Ahmed A, Nishtar S - BMC Public Health (2008)

Bottom Line: The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01) and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001).Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use.Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed.

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Affiliation: Community Health Sciences, Shifa College of Medicine, Pitrus Bukhari Road, Sector H-8/4, Islamabad, Pakistan. aliyawaralam@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Methods: Cross sectional survey of households (population based) with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban) was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan) and included males and females 18-65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use.

Results: Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women) used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of tobacco use included cigarette smoking (68.5%), oral tobacco (13.5%), hukka (12%) and cigarette smoking plus oral tobacco (6%). Among those not using tobacco products, 56% were exposed to Environmental tobacco smoke. The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01) and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001). Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use. Population attributable percentage of tobacco use increases steadily as the gap between no formal Education and level of education widens.

Conclusion: There was a positive association between tobacco use and rural area of residence, male gender and low education levels. Low education could be a proxy for low awareness and consumer information on tobacco products. As Public health practitioners we should inform the general public especially the illiterate about the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed.

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Adjusted * percentage of tobacco use across various levels of education.
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Figure 1: Adjusted * percentage of tobacco use across various levels of education.

Mentions: Population attributable percentage of Tobacco use for each level of education was calculated (Table 4). Proportion of tobacco use at each level of education was adjusted for age, gender, urban/rural residence and family income. At first prevalence of tobacco use for the total population was calculated, using the formulas as given under Table 4. Then attributable percentage total population was calculated using the formulas shown under Table 4. No formal education was treated as the exposed group and the next level of education as the unexposed group. According to the calculation shown in Table 4, population attributable percentage of tobacco consumption increases steadily as the gap between no formal education and level of education widens. It is shown graphically in Fig 1.


Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Alam AY, Iqbal A, Mohamud KB, Laporte RE, Ahmed A, Nishtar S - BMC Public Health (2008)

Adjusted * percentage of tobacco use across various levels of education.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2268929&req=5

Figure 1: Adjusted * percentage of tobacco use across various levels of education.
Mentions: Population attributable percentage of Tobacco use for each level of education was calculated (Table 4). Proportion of tobacco use at each level of education was adjusted for age, gender, urban/rural residence and family income. At first prevalence of tobacco use for the total population was calculated, using the formulas as given under Table 4. Then attributable percentage total population was calculated using the formulas shown under Table 4. No formal education was treated as the exposed group and the next level of education as the unexposed group. According to the calculation shown in Table 4, population attributable percentage of tobacco consumption increases steadily as the gap between no formal education and level of education widens. It is shown graphically in Fig 1.

Bottom Line: The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01) and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001).Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use.Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Community Health Sciences, Shifa College of Medicine, Pitrus Bukhari Road, Sector H-8/4, Islamabad, Pakistan. aliyawaralam@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Methods: Cross sectional survey of households (population based) with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban) was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan) and included males and females 18-65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use.

Results: Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women) used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of tobacco use included cigarette smoking (68.5%), oral tobacco (13.5%), hukka (12%) and cigarette smoking plus oral tobacco (6%). Among those not using tobacco products, 56% were exposed to Environmental tobacco smoke. The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01) and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001). Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use. Population attributable percentage of tobacco use increases steadily as the gap between no formal Education and level of education widens.

Conclusion: There was a positive association between tobacco use and rural area of residence, male gender and low education levels. Low education could be a proxy for low awareness and consumer information on tobacco products. As Public health practitioners we should inform the general public especially the illiterate about the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed.

Show MeSH