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Comparative molecular biological analysis of membrane transport genes in organisms.

Nagata T, Iizumi S, Satoh K, Kikuchi S - Plant Mol. Biol. (2008)

Bottom Line: Plants use H(+) ions pooled in vacuoles and the apoplast to transport various substances; these proton gradients are also dependent on secondary active transporters.We also compared the numbers of membrane transporter genes in Arabidopsis and rice.Although many transporter genes are similar in these plants, Arabidopsis has a more diverse array of genes for multi-efflux transport and for response to stress signals, and rice has more secondary transporter genes for carbohydrate and nutrient transport.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Genome Research Unit, Division of Genome and Biodiversity Research, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Kannondai 2-1-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Comparative analyses of membrane transport genes revealed many differences in the features of transport homeostasis in eight diverse organisms, ranging from bacteria to animals and plants. In bacteria, membrane-transport systems depend mainly on single genes encoding proteins involved in an ATP-dependent pump and secondary transport proteins that use H(+) as a co-transport molecule. Animals are especially divergent in their channel genes, and plants have larger numbers of P-type ATPase and secondary active transporters than do other organisms. The secondary transporter genes have diverged evolutionarily in both animals and plants for different co-transporter molecules. Animals use Na(+) ions for the formation of concentration gradients across plasma membranes, dependent on secondary active transporters and on membrane voltages that in turn are dependent on ion transport regulation systems. Plants use H(+) ions pooled in vacuoles and the apoplast to transport various substances; these proton gradients are also dependent on secondary active transporters. We also compared the numbers of membrane transporter genes in Arabidopsis and rice. Although many transporter genes are similar in these plants, Arabidopsis has a more diverse array of genes for multi-efflux transport and for response to stress signals, and rice has more secondary transporter genes for carbohydrate and nutrient transport.

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Summaries of comparison of membrane transport genes in bacteria, animals, and plants. Bacteria-specific genes = blue; animal-specific genes = red; plant-specific genes = green; bacteria- and animal-specific genes = purple; bacteria- and plant-specific genes = brown; genes with divergent numbers in organisms = yellow. ABC: ATP-binding Cassette; ArsAB: Arsenite-Antimonite Efflux; F-ATPase: H+or Na+-translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPase; H+-Ppase: H+-translocating Pyrophosphatase; IISP: General Secretory Pathway (Sec); MPT: Mitochondrial Protein Translocase; P-ATPase: P-type ATPase; ACC: ATP-gated Cation Channel; Annexin: Annexin; Bcl-2: Bcl-2; Bestrophin: Anion Channel-forming Bestrophin; CD20: CD20 Ca2+ Channel; ClC: Chloride Channel; Connexin: Gap Junction-forming Connexin; CSC: Chloroplast Outer Envelope Solute Channel; CytB: gp91phox Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase-associated Cytochrome b558 (CytB) H+-channel; E-ClC: Epithelial Chloride Channel; EnaC: Epithelial Na+ Channel; GIC: Glutamate-gated Ion Channel; Hsp70: Cation Channel-forming Heat Shock Protein-70; ICC: Intracellular Chloride Channel; Ic ln: Nucleotide-sensitive Anion-selective Channel; Innexin: Gap Junction-forming Innexin; IRK-C: Inward Rectifier K+ Channel; LIC: Ligand-gated Ion Channel of Neurotransmitter Receptors; Mid1: Yeast Stretch-Activated, Cation-Selective Ca2+ Channel Mid1; MIP: Major Intrinsic Protein; MIT: CorA Metal Ion Transporter; MscL: Large Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; MscS: Small Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; NSCC2: Non-selective Cation Channel-2; O-ClC: Organellar Chloride Channel; PCC: Polycystin Cation Channel; PLM: Phospholemman; RIR-CaC; Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Channel; Tic110: Chloroplast Envelope Anion Channel-forming Tic110; TRP-CC: Transient Receptor Potential Ca2+ Channel; UT: Urea Transporter; VIC: Voltage-gated Ion Channel; AAA: ATP:ADP Antiporter; AAAP: Amino Acid/Auxin Permease; AAE: Aspartate:Alanine Exchanger; AbgT: p-Aminobenzoyl-glutamate Transporter; ACR3: Arsenical Resistance-3; AE: Anion Exchanger; AEC: Auxin Efflux Carrier; AGCS: Alanine or Glycine:Cation Symporter; Amt: Ammonium or Ammonia Transporter; APC: Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation; ArsB: Arsenite-Antimonite (ArsB) Efflux; BASS: Bile Acid:Na+ Symporter; BCCT: Betaine/Carnitine/Choline Transporter; BenE: Benzoate:H+ Symporter; CaCA: Ca2+:Cation Antiporter; CCC: Cation-Chloride Cotransporter; CDF: Cation Diffusion Facilitator; CHR: Chromate Ion Transporter; CNT: Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter; CPA1: Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-1; CPA2: Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-2; DAACS: Dicarboxylate/Amino Acid:Cation (Na+ or H+) Symporter; DASS: Divalent Anion:Na+ Symporter; Dcu: C4-Dicarboxylate Uptake; DcuC: C4-dicarboxylate Uptake C; DMT: Drug/Metabolite Transporter; ENT: Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter; ESS: Glutamate:Na+ Symporter; FBT: Folate-Biopterin Transporter; FNT: Formate-Nitrite Transporter; GntP: Gluconate:H+ Symporter; GPH: Glycoside-Pentoside-Hexuronide (GPH):Cation Symporter; GUP: Glycerol Uptake; HAAAP: Hydroxy/Aromatic Amino Acid Permease; KDGT: 2-Keto-3-Deoxygluconate Transporter; KUP: K+ Uptake Permease; LCT: Lysosomal Cystine Transporter; LctP: Lactate Permease; LIV-E: Branched Chain Amino Acid Exporter; LIVCS: Branched Chain Amino Acid:Cation Symporter; LysE: L-Lysine Exporter; MC: Mitochondrial Carrier; MET: 4 TMS Multidrug Endosomal Transporter; MFS: Major Facilitator Superfamily; MOP: Multidrug/Oligosaccharidyl-lipid/Polysaccharide Flippase Superfamily; MTC: Mitochondrial Tricarboxylate Carrier; NCS1: Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-1; NCS2: Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-2; NhaA: Na+:H+ Antiporter A; NhaB: Na+:H+ Antiporter B; NhaD: Na+:H+ Antiporter D; NiCoT: Ni2+–Co2+ Transporter; Nramp: Metal Ion (Mn2+–iron) Transporter; NSS: Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporter; OAT: Organo Anion Transporter; OPT: Oligopeptide Transporter; OST: Organic Solute Transporter; Oxa1: Cytochrome Oxidase Biogenesis; PiT: Inorganic Phosphate Transporter; PnaS: Phosphate:Na+ Symporter; POT: Proton-dependent Oligopeptide Transporter; RFC: Reduced Folate Carrier; RhtB: Resistance to Homoserine/Threonine; RND: Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division; SSS: Solute:Sodium Symporter; SulP: Sulfate Permease; Tat: Twin Arginine Targeting; TDT: Tellurite-resistance/Dicarboxylate Transporter; ThrE: Threonine/Serine Exporter; TRAP-T: Tripartite ATP-independent Periplasmic Transporter; Trk: K+ Transporter; ZIP: Zinc (Zn2+)–Iron (Fe2+) Permease; GPTS: general carbohydrate phosphotransferase; SSPTS: sugar specific phosphotransferase; Ctr1: Dipicolinic Acid Transporter; Ctr2: Copper Transporter; FeoB: Ferrous Iron Uptake; FeT: Low Affinity Fe2+ Transporter; FP: Ferroportin; LPI: Lysosomal Protein Import; OfeT: Iron/Lead Transporter; PnuC: nicotinamide mononucleotide(NMN) uptake permease; PPI: Peroxisomal Protein Importer; PUP: Peptide Uptake or Activated Fatty Acid Export Permease
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Fig7: Summaries of comparison of membrane transport genes in bacteria, animals, and plants. Bacteria-specific genes = blue; animal-specific genes = red; plant-specific genes = green; bacteria- and animal-specific genes = purple; bacteria- and plant-specific genes = brown; genes with divergent numbers in organisms = yellow. ABC: ATP-binding Cassette; ArsAB: Arsenite-Antimonite Efflux; F-ATPase: H+or Na+-translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPase; H+-Ppase: H+-translocating Pyrophosphatase; IISP: General Secretory Pathway (Sec); MPT: Mitochondrial Protein Translocase; P-ATPase: P-type ATPase; ACC: ATP-gated Cation Channel; Annexin: Annexin; Bcl-2: Bcl-2; Bestrophin: Anion Channel-forming Bestrophin; CD20: CD20 Ca2+ Channel; ClC: Chloride Channel; Connexin: Gap Junction-forming Connexin; CSC: Chloroplast Outer Envelope Solute Channel; CytB: gp91phox Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase-associated Cytochrome b558 (CytB) H+-channel; E-ClC: Epithelial Chloride Channel; EnaC: Epithelial Na+ Channel; GIC: Glutamate-gated Ion Channel; Hsp70: Cation Channel-forming Heat Shock Protein-70; ICC: Intracellular Chloride Channel; Ic ln: Nucleotide-sensitive Anion-selective Channel; Innexin: Gap Junction-forming Innexin; IRK-C: Inward Rectifier K+ Channel; LIC: Ligand-gated Ion Channel of Neurotransmitter Receptors; Mid1: Yeast Stretch-Activated, Cation-Selective Ca2+ Channel Mid1; MIP: Major Intrinsic Protein; MIT: CorA Metal Ion Transporter; MscL: Large Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; MscS: Small Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; NSCC2: Non-selective Cation Channel-2; O-ClC: Organellar Chloride Channel; PCC: Polycystin Cation Channel; PLM: Phospholemman; RIR-CaC; Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Channel; Tic110: Chloroplast Envelope Anion Channel-forming Tic110; TRP-CC: Transient Receptor Potential Ca2+ Channel; UT: Urea Transporter; VIC: Voltage-gated Ion Channel; AAA: ATP:ADP Antiporter; AAAP: Amino Acid/Auxin Permease; AAE: Aspartate:Alanine Exchanger; AbgT: p-Aminobenzoyl-glutamate Transporter; ACR3: Arsenical Resistance-3; AE: Anion Exchanger; AEC: Auxin Efflux Carrier; AGCS: Alanine or Glycine:Cation Symporter; Amt: Ammonium or Ammonia Transporter; APC: Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation; ArsB: Arsenite-Antimonite (ArsB) Efflux; BASS: Bile Acid:Na+ Symporter; BCCT: Betaine/Carnitine/Choline Transporter; BenE: Benzoate:H+ Symporter; CaCA: Ca2+:Cation Antiporter; CCC: Cation-Chloride Cotransporter; CDF: Cation Diffusion Facilitator; CHR: Chromate Ion Transporter; CNT: Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter; CPA1: Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-1; CPA2: Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-2; DAACS: Dicarboxylate/Amino Acid:Cation (Na+ or H+) Symporter; DASS: Divalent Anion:Na+ Symporter; Dcu: C4-Dicarboxylate Uptake; DcuC: C4-dicarboxylate Uptake C; DMT: Drug/Metabolite Transporter; ENT: Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter; ESS: Glutamate:Na+ Symporter; FBT: Folate-Biopterin Transporter; FNT: Formate-Nitrite Transporter; GntP: Gluconate:H+ Symporter; GPH: Glycoside-Pentoside-Hexuronide (GPH):Cation Symporter; GUP: Glycerol Uptake; HAAAP: Hydroxy/Aromatic Amino Acid Permease; KDGT: 2-Keto-3-Deoxygluconate Transporter; KUP: K+ Uptake Permease; LCT: Lysosomal Cystine Transporter; LctP: Lactate Permease; LIV-E: Branched Chain Amino Acid Exporter; LIVCS: Branched Chain Amino Acid:Cation Symporter; LysE: L-Lysine Exporter; MC: Mitochondrial Carrier; MET: 4 TMS Multidrug Endosomal Transporter; MFS: Major Facilitator Superfamily; MOP: Multidrug/Oligosaccharidyl-lipid/Polysaccharide Flippase Superfamily; MTC: Mitochondrial Tricarboxylate Carrier; NCS1: Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-1; NCS2: Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-2; NhaA: Na+:H+ Antiporter A; NhaB: Na+:H+ Antiporter B; NhaD: Na+:H+ Antiporter D; NiCoT: Ni2+–Co2+ Transporter; Nramp: Metal Ion (Mn2+–iron) Transporter; NSS: Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporter; OAT: Organo Anion Transporter; OPT: Oligopeptide Transporter; OST: Organic Solute Transporter; Oxa1: Cytochrome Oxidase Biogenesis; PiT: Inorganic Phosphate Transporter; PnaS: Phosphate:Na+ Symporter; POT: Proton-dependent Oligopeptide Transporter; RFC: Reduced Folate Carrier; RhtB: Resistance to Homoserine/Threonine; RND: Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division; SSS: Solute:Sodium Symporter; SulP: Sulfate Permease; Tat: Twin Arginine Targeting; TDT: Tellurite-resistance/Dicarboxylate Transporter; ThrE: Threonine/Serine Exporter; TRAP-T: Tripartite ATP-independent Periplasmic Transporter; Trk: K+ Transporter; ZIP: Zinc (Zn2+)–Iron (Fe2+) Permease; GPTS: general carbohydrate phosphotransferase; SSPTS: sugar specific phosphotransferase; Ctr1: Dipicolinic Acid Transporter; Ctr2: Copper Transporter; FeoB: Ferrous Iron Uptake; FeT: Low Affinity Fe2+ Transporter; FP: Ferroportin; LPI: Lysosomal Protein Import; OfeT: Iron/Lead Transporter; PnuC: nicotinamide mononucleotide(NMN) uptake permease; PPI: Peroxisomal Protein Importer; PUP: Peptide Uptake or Activated Fatty Acid Export Permease

Mentions: Comparison of the overall gene compositions of bacteria (E. coli), animals (H. sapiens), and plants (A. thaliana and O. sativa) reveals the strategies for osmotic pressure adjustment and the features of the substance-transport systems in each organism (Fig. 7). Since a monad cannot control the ion environment of its external world and has no need to communicate with other cells, the role of its transporter proteins is restricted to the control of material transport into and out of the cell. Therefore, transport depends mainly on an energy-consuming system (pump) and an internal ion-gradient-dependent system (secondary transporter). Because the bacterium has a cell wall, osmotic pressure is opposed by cell wall pressure and there is no need to form a molecular concentration gradient to prevent excessive accumulation within the cell. Additionally, bacteria are small (1–5 μm, <1/10 of the size of an animal cell) and do not have many of the organelles and membrane structures possessed by higher organisms. Therefore, transport of substances is simple and it is easy to control their concentrations in the cell. The genes encoding the ATP-dependent pump (ABC), phosphotransferase (PTS), small conductance mechanosensitive ion channel (MscS), and secondary active transporters (e.g. APC, DMT, MFS, NCS2, RND) with H+ or Na+ as co-transporter molecules have diverged in bacteria (Fig. 7).Fig. 7


Comparative molecular biological analysis of membrane transport genes in organisms.

Nagata T, Iizumi S, Satoh K, Kikuchi S - Plant Mol. Biol. (2008)

Summaries of comparison of membrane transport genes in bacteria, animals, and plants. Bacteria-specific genes = blue; animal-specific genes = red; plant-specific genes = green; bacteria- and animal-specific genes = purple; bacteria- and plant-specific genes = brown; genes with divergent numbers in organisms = yellow. ABC: ATP-binding Cassette; ArsAB: Arsenite-Antimonite Efflux; F-ATPase: H+or Na+-translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPase; H+-Ppase: H+-translocating Pyrophosphatase; IISP: General Secretory Pathway (Sec); MPT: Mitochondrial Protein Translocase; P-ATPase: P-type ATPase; ACC: ATP-gated Cation Channel; Annexin: Annexin; Bcl-2: Bcl-2; Bestrophin: Anion Channel-forming Bestrophin; CD20: CD20 Ca2+ Channel; ClC: Chloride Channel; Connexin: Gap Junction-forming Connexin; CSC: Chloroplast Outer Envelope Solute Channel; CytB: gp91phox Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase-associated Cytochrome b558 (CytB) H+-channel; E-ClC: Epithelial Chloride Channel; EnaC: Epithelial Na+ Channel; GIC: Glutamate-gated Ion Channel; Hsp70: Cation Channel-forming Heat Shock Protein-70; ICC: Intracellular Chloride Channel; Ic ln: Nucleotide-sensitive Anion-selective Channel; Innexin: Gap Junction-forming Innexin; IRK-C: Inward Rectifier K+ Channel; LIC: Ligand-gated Ion Channel of Neurotransmitter Receptors; Mid1: Yeast Stretch-Activated, Cation-Selective Ca2+ Channel Mid1; MIP: Major Intrinsic Protein; MIT: CorA Metal Ion Transporter; MscL: Large Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; MscS: Small Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; NSCC2: Non-selective Cation Channel-2; O-ClC: Organellar Chloride Channel; PCC: Polycystin Cation Channel; PLM: Phospholemman; RIR-CaC; Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Channel; Tic110: Chloroplast Envelope Anion Channel-forming Tic110; TRP-CC: Transient Receptor Potential Ca2+ Channel; UT: Urea Transporter; VIC: Voltage-gated Ion Channel; AAA: ATP:ADP Antiporter; AAAP: Amino Acid/Auxin Permease; AAE: Aspartate:Alanine Exchanger; AbgT: p-Aminobenzoyl-glutamate Transporter; ACR3: Arsenical Resistance-3; AE: Anion Exchanger; AEC: Auxin Efflux Carrier; AGCS: Alanine or Glycine:Cation Symporter; Amt: Ammonium or Ammonia Transporter; APC: Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation; ArsB: Arsenite-Antimonite (ArsB) Efflux; BASS: Bile Acid:Na+ Symporter; BCCT: Betaine/Carnitine/Choline Transporter; BenE: Benzoate:H+ Symporter; CaCA: Ca2+:Cation Antiporter; CCC: Cation-Chloride Cotransporter; CDF: Cation Diffusion Facilitator; CHR: Chromate Ion Transporter; CNT: Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter; CPA1: Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-1; CPA2: Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-2; DAACS: Dicarboxylate/Amino Acid:Cation (Na+ or H+) Symporter; DASS: Divalent Anion:Na+ Symporter; Dcu: C4-Dicarboxylate Uptake; DcuC: C4-dicarboxylate Uptake C; DMT: Drug/Metabolite Transporter; ENT: Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter; ESS: Glutamate:Na+ Symporter; FBT: Folate-Biopterin Transporter; FNT: Formate-Nitrite Transporter; GntP: Gluconate:H+ Symporter; GPH: Glycoside-Pentoside-Hexuronide (GPH):Cation Symporter; GUP: Glycerol Uptake; HAAAP: Hydroxy/Aromatic Amino Acid Permease; KDGT: 2-Keto-3-Deoxygluconate Transporter; KUP: K+ Uptake Permease; LCT: Lysosomal Cystine Transporter; LctP: Lactate Permease; LIV-E: Branched Chain Amino Acid Exporter; LIVCS: Branched Chain Amino Acid:Cation Symporter; LysE: L-Lysine Exporter; MC: Mitochondrial Carrier; MET: 4 TMS Multidrug Endosomal Transporter; MFS: Major Facilitator Superfamily; MOP: Multidrug/Oligosaccharidyl-lipid/Polysaccharide Flippase Superfamily; MTC: Mitochondrial Tricarboxylate Carrier; NCS1: Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-1; NCS2: Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-2; NhaA: Na+:H+ Antiporter A; NhaB: Na+:H+ Antiporter B; NhaD: Na+:H+ Antiporter D; NiCoT: Ni2+–Co2+ Transporter; Nramp: Metal Ion (Mn2+–iron) Transporter; NSS: Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporter; OAT: Organo Anion Transporter; OPT: Oligopeptide Transporter; OST: Organic Solute Transporter; Oxa1: Cytochrome Oxidase Biogenesis; PiT: Inorganic Phosphate Transporter; PnaS: Phosphate:Na+ Symporter; POT: Proton-dependent Oligopeptide Transporter; RFC: Reduced Folate Carrier; RhtB: Resistance to Homoserine/Threonine; RND: Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division; SSS: Solute:Sodium Symporter; SulP: Sulfate Permease; Tat: Twin Arginine Targeting; TDT: Tellurite-resistance/Dicarboxylate Transporter; ThrE: Threonine/Serine Exporter; TRAP-T: Tripartite ATP-independent Periplasmic Transporter; Trk: K+ Transporter; ZIP: Zinc (Zn2+)–Iron (Fe2+) Permease; GPTS: general carbohydrate phosphotransferase; SSPTS: sugar specific phosphotransferase; Ctr1: Dipicolinic Acid Transporter; Ctr2: Copper Transporter; FeoB: Ferrous Iron Uptake; FeT: Low Affinity Fe2+ Transporter; FP: Ferroportin; LPI: Lysosomal Protein Import; OfeT: Iron/Lead Transporter; PnuC: nicotinamide mononucleotide(NMN) uptake permease; PPI: Peroxisomal Protein Importer; PUP: Peptide Uptake or Activated Fatty Acid Export Permease
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2268718&req=5

Fig7: Summaries of comparison of membrane transport genes in bacteria, animals, and plants. Bacteria-specific genes = blue; animal-specific genes = red; plant-specific genes = green; bacteria- and animal-specific genes = purple; bacteria- and plant-specific genes = brown; genes with divergent numbers in organisms = yellow. ABC: ATP-binding Cassette; ArsAB: Arsenite-Antimonite Efflux; F-ATPase: H+or Na+-translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPase; H+-Ppase: H+-translocating Pyrophosphatase; IISP: General Secretory Pathway (Sec); MPT: Mitochondrial Protein Translocase; P-ATPase: P-type ATPase; ACC: ATP-gated Cation Channel; Annexin: Annexin; Bcl-2: Bcl-2; Bestrophin: Anion Channel-forming Bestrophin; CD20: CD20 Ca2+ Channel; ClC: Chloride Channel; Connexin: Gap Junction-forming Connexin; CSC: Chloroplast Outer Envelope Solute Channel; CytB: gp91phox Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase-associated Cytochrome b558 (CytB) H+-channel; E-ClC: Epithelial Chloride Channel; EnaC: Epithelial Na+ Channel; GIC: Glutamate-gated Ion Channel; Hsp70: Cation Channel-forming Heat Shock Protein-70; ICC: Intracellular Chloride Channel; Ic ln: Nucleotide-sensitive Anion-selective Channel; Innexin: Gap Junction-forming Innexin; IRK-C: Inward Rectifier K+ Channel; LIC: Ligand-gated Ion Channel of Neurotransmitter Receptors; Mid1: Yeast Stretch-Activated, Cation-Selective Ca2+ Channel Mid1; MIP: Major Intrinsic Protein; MIT: CorA Metal Ion Transporter; MscL: Large Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; MscS: Small Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; NSCC2: Non-selective Cation Channel-2; O-ClC: Organellar Chloride Channel; PCC: Polycystin Cation Channel; PLM: Phospholemman; RIR-CaC; Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Channel; Tic110: Chloroplast Envelope Anion Channel-forming Tic110; TRP-CC: Transient Receptor Potential Ca2+ Channel; UT: Urea Transporter; VIC: Voltage-gated Ion Channel; AAA: ATP:ADP Antiporter; AAAP: Amino Acid/Auxin Permease; AAE: Aspartate:Alanine Exchanger; AbgT: p-Aminobenzoyl-glutamate Transporter; ACR3: Arsenical Resistance-3; AE: Anion Exchanger; AEC: Auxin Efflux Carrier; AGCS: Alanine or Glycine:Cation Symporter; Amt: Ammonium or Ammonia Transporter; APC: Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation; ArsB: Arsenite-Antimonite (ArsB) Efflux; BASS: Bile Acid:Na+ Symporter; BCCT: Betaine/Carnitine/Choline Transporter; BenE: Benzoate:H+ Symporter; CaCA: Ca2+:Cation Antiporter; CCC: Cation-Chloride Cotransporter; CDF: Cation Diffusion Facilitator; CHR: Chromate Ion Transporter; CNT: Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter; CPA1: Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-1; CPA2: Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-2; DAACS: Dicarboxylate/Amino Acid:Cation (Na+ or H+) Symporter; DASS: Divalent Anion:Na+ Symporter; Dcu: C4-Dicarboxylate Uptake; DcuC: C4-dicarboxylate Uptake C; DMT: Drug/Metabolite Transporter; ENT: Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter; ESS: Glutamate:Na+ Symporter; FBT: Folate-Biopterin Transporter; FNT: Formate-Nitrite Transporter; GntP: Gluconate:H+ Symporter; GPH: Glycoside-Pentoside-Hexuronide (GPH):Cation Symporter; GUP: Glycerol Uptake; HAAAP: Hydroxy/Aromatic Amino Acid Permease; KDGT: 2-Keto-3-Deoxygluconate Transporter; KUP: K+ Uptake Permease; LCT: Lysosomal Cystine Transporter; LctP: Lactate Permease; LIV-E: Branched Chain Amino Acid Exporter; LIVCS: Branched Chain Amino Acid:Cation Symporter; LysE: L-Lysine Exporter; MC: Mitochondrial Carrier; MET: 4 TMS Multidrug Endosomal Transporter; MFS: Major Facilitator Superfamily; MOP: Multidrug/Oligosaccharidyl-lipid/Polysaccharide Flippase Superfamily; MTC: Mitochondrial Tricarboxylate Carrier; NCS1: Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-1; NCS2: Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-2; NhaA: Na+:H+ Antiporter A; NhaB: Na+:H+ Antiporter B; NhaD: Na+:H+ Antiporter D; NiCoT: Ni2+–Co2+ Transporter; Nramp: Metal Ion (Mn2+–iron) Transporter; NSS: Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporter; OAT: Organo Anion Transporter; OPT: Oligopeptide Transporter; OST: Organic Solute Transporter; Oxa1: Cytochrome Oxidase Biogenesis; PiT: Inorganic Phosphate Transporter; PnaS: Phosphate:Na+ Symporter; POT: Proton-dependent Oligopeptide Transporter; RFC: Reduced Folate Carrier; RhtB: Resistance to Homoserine/Threonine; RND: Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division; SSS: Solute:Sodium Symporter; SulP: Sulfate Permease; Tat: Twin Arginine Targeting; TDT: Tellurite-resistance/Dicarboxylate Transporter; ThrE: Threonine/Serine Exporter; TRAP-T: Tripartite ATP-independent Periplasmic Transporter; Trk: K+ Transporter; ZIP: Zinc (Zn2+)–Iron (Fe2+) Permease; GPTS: general carbohydrate phosphotransferase; SSPTS: sugar specific phosphotransferase; Ctr1: Dipicolinic Acid Transporter; Ctr2: Copper Transporter; FeoB: Ferrous Iron Uptake; FeT: Low Affinity Fe2+ Transporter; FP: Ferroportin; LPI: Lysosomal Protein Import; OfeT: Iron/Lead Transporter; PnuC: nicotinamide mononucleotide(NMN) uptake permease; PPI: Peroxisomal Protein Importer; PUP: Peptide Uptake or Activated Fatty Acid Export Permease
Mentions: Comparison of the overall gene compositions of bacteria (E. coli), animals (H. sapiens), and plants (A. thaliana and O. sativa) reveals the strategies for osmotic pressure adjustment and the features of the substance-transport systems in each organism (Fig. 7). Since a monad cannot control the ion environment of its external world and has no need to communicate with other cells, the role of its transporter proteins is restricted to the control of material transport into and out of the cell. Therefore, transport depends mainly on an energy-consuming system (pump) and an internal ion-gradient-dependent system (secondary transporter). Because the bacterium has a cell wall, osmotic pressure is opposed by cell wall pressure and there is no need to form a molecular concentration gradient to prevent excessive accumulation within the cell. Additionally, bacteria are small (1–5 μm, <1/10 of the size of an animal cell) and do not have many of the organelles and membrane structures possessed by higher organisms. Therefore, transport of substances is simple and it is easy to control their concentrations in the cell. The genes encoding the ATP-dependent pump (ABC), phosphotransferase (PTS), small conductance mechanosensitive ion channel (MscS), and secondary active transporters (e.g. APC, DMT, MFS, NCS2, RND) with H+ or Na+ as co-transporter molecules have diverged in bacteria (Fig. 7).Fig. 7

Bottom Line: Plants use H(+) ions pooled in vacuoles and the apoplast to transport various substances; these proton gradients are also dependent on secondary active transporters.We also compared the numbers of membrane transporter genes in Arabidopsis and rice.Although many transporter genes are similar in these plants, Arabidopsis has a more diverse array of genes for multi-efflux transport and for response to stress signals, and rice has more secondary transporter genes for carbohydrate and nutrient transport.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Genome Research Unit, Division of Genome and Biodiversity Research, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Kannondai 2-1-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Comparative analyses of membrane transport genes revealed many differences in the features of transport homeostasis in eight diverse organisms, ranging from bacteria to animals and plants. In bacteria, membrane-transport systems depend mainly on single genes encoding proteins involved in an ATP-dependent pump and secondary transport proteins that use H(+) as a co-transport molecule. Animals are especially divergent in their channel genes, and plants have larger numbers of P-type ATPase and secondary active transporters than do other organisms. The secondary transporter genes have diverged evolutionarily in both animals and plants for different co-transporter molecules. Animals use Na(+) ions for the formation of concentration gradients across plasma membranes, dependent on secondary active transporters and on membrane voltages that in turn are dependent on ion transport regulation systems. Plants use H(+) ions pooled in vacuoles and the apoplast to transport various substances; these proton gradients are also dependent on secondary active transporters. We also compared the numbers of membrane transporter genes in Arabidopsis and rice. Although many transporter genes are similar in these plants, Arabidopsis has a more diverse array of genes for multi-efflux transport and for response to stress signals, and rice has more secondary transporter genes for carbohydrate and nutrient transport.

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