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Comparative molecular biological analysis of membrane transport genes in organisms.

Nagata T, Iizumi S, Satoh K, Kikuchi S - Plant Mol. Biol. (2008)

Bottom Line: Plants use H(+) ions pooled in vacuoles and the apoplast to transport various substances; these proton gradients are also dependent on secondary active transporters.We also compared the numbers of membrane transporter genes in Arabidopsis and rice.Although many transporter genes are similar in these plants, Arabidopsis has a more diverse array of genes for multi-efflux transport and for response to stress signals, and rice has more secondary transporter genes for carbohydrate and nutrient transport.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Genome Research Unit, Division of Genome and Biodiversity Research, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Kannondai 2-1-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Comparative analyses of membrane transport genes revealed many differences in the features of transport homeostasis in eight diverse organisms, ranging from bacteria to animals and plants. In bacteria, membrane-transport systems depend mainly on single genes encoding proteins involved in an ATP-dependent pump and secondary transport proteins that use H(+) as a co-transport molecule. Animals are especially divergent in their channel genes, and plants have larger numbers of P-type ATPase and secondary active transporters than do other organisms. The secondary transporter genes have diverged evolutionarily in both animals and plants for different co-transporter molecules. Animals use Na(+) ions for the formation of concentration gradients across plasma membranes, dependent on secondary active transporters and on membrane voltages that in turn are dependent on ion transport regulation systems. Plants use H(+) ions pooled in vacuoles and the apoplast to transport various substances; these proton gradients are also dependent on secondary active transporters. We also compared the numbers of membrane transporter genes in Arabidopsis and rice. Although many transporter genes are similar in these plants, Arabidopsis has a more diverse array of genes for multi-efflux transport and for response to stress signals, and rice has more secondary transporter genes for carbohydrate and nutrient transport.

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Comparison of numbers of channel genes among various organisms. Channel gene numbers were compared among many organisms (E. coli K12-MG1655, A. thaliana, O. sativa, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, H. sapiens NCBI, N. crassa 74-OR23-IVA, and S. cerevisiae S228C). ACC: ATP-gated Cation Channel; Bcl-2: Bcl-2; Bestrophin: Anion Channel-forming Bestrophin; CD20: CD20 Ca2+ Channel; ClC: Chloride Channel; Connexin: Gap Junction-forming Connexin; CytB: gp91phox Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase-associated Cytochrome b558 (CytB) H+-channel; E-ClC: Epithelial Chloride Channel; EnaC: Epithelial Na+ Channel; GIC: Glutamate-gated Ion Channel; Hsp70: Cation Channel-forming Heat Shock Protein-70; ICC: Intracellular Chloride Channel; Icln: Nucleotide-sensitive Anion-selective Channel; Innexin: Gap Junction-forming Innexin; IRK-C: Inward Rectifier K+ Channel; LIC: Ligand-gated Ion Channel of Neurotransmitter Receptors; Mid1: Yeast Stretch-Activated, Cation-Selective Ca2+ Channel Mid1; MIP: Major Intrinsic Protein; MIT: CorA Metal Ion Transporter; MscL: Large Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; MscS: Small Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; NSCC2: Non-selective Cation Channel-2; O-ClC: Organellar Chloride Channel; PCC: Polycystin Cation Channel; PLM: Phospholemman; RIR-CaC; Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Channel; Tic110: Chloroplast Envelope Anion Channel-forming Tic110; TRP-CC: Transient Receptor Potential Ca2+ Channel; UT: Urea Transporter; VIC: Voltage-gated Ion Channel
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Fig3: Comparison of numbers of channel genes among various organisms. Channel gene numbers were compared among many organisms (E. coli K12-MG1655, A. thaliana, O. sativa, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, H. sapiens NCBI, N. crassa 74-OR23-IVA, and S. cerevisiae S228C). ACC: ATP-gated Cation Channel; Bcl-2: Bcl-2; Bestrophin: Anion Channel-forming Bestrophin; CD20: CD20 Ca2+ Channel; ClC: Chloride Channel; Connexin: Gap Junction-forming Connexin; CytB: gp91phox Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase-associated Cytochrome b558 (CytB) H+-channel; E-ClC: Epithelial Chloride Channel; EnaC: Epithelial Na+ Channel; GIC: Glutamate-gated Ion Channel; Hsp70: Cation Channel-forming Heat Shock Protein-70; ICC: Intracellular Chloride Channel; Icln: Nucleotide-sensitive Anion-selective Channel; Innexin: Gap Junction-forming Innexin; IRK-C: Inward Rectifier K+ Channel; LIC: Ligand-gated Ion Channel of Neurotransmitter Receptors; Mid1: Yeast Stretch-Activated, Cation-Selective Ca2+ Channel Mid1; MIP: Major Intrinsic Protein; MIT: CorA Metal Ion Transporter; MscL: Large Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; MscS: Small Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; NSCC2: Non-selective Cation Channel-2; O-ClC: Organellar Chloride Channel; PCC: Polycystin Cation Channel; PLM: Phospholemman; RIR-CaC; Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Channel; Tic110: Chloroplast Envelope Anion Channel-forming Tic110; TRP-CC: Transient Receptor Potential Ca2+ Channel; UT: Urea Transporter; VIC: Voltage-gated Ion Channel

Mentions: Ion channels are the “gates” in the membranes that open or close in response to signals such as mechanical or electrical stimulation and ligand binding. Therefore, ion channels are closely involved in determining whether or not ionic gradients are available. Multicellular organisms can control the ion concentrations in the tissues on both sides of the cell membrane, whereas monocellular organisms usually find it hard to control the ion gradient outside the cell. Thus, the use of ion channels becomes restrictive and unidirectional in these more primitive organisms. Unlike in eukaryotes, the channel system in prokaryotes is not well adapted to transport (Table 1, Fig. 3, and Supplemental data-3). Of the total number of genes encoding membrane transport proteins in prokaryotes, fewer than 5% are channel genes, and they mainly regulate osmotic homeostasis in the cell. Ions (e.g. Cl−, K+, metal), water, and osmolytes are imported or exported by the channels in their restricted role. In contrast, animals can make various ion gradients precisely and, in particular, can develop channel systems very well.Fig. 3


Comparative molecular biological analysis of membrane transport genes in organisms.

Nagata T, Iizumi S, Satoh K, Kikuchi S - Plant Mol. Biol. (2008)

Comparison of numbers of channel genes among various organisms. Channel gene numbers were compared among many organisms (E. coli K12-MG1655, A. thaliana, O. sativa, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, H. sapiens NCBI, N. crassa 74-OR23-IVA, and S. cerevisiae S228C). ACC: ATP-gated Cation Channel; Bcl-2: Bcl-2; Bestrophin: Anion Channel-forming Bestrophin; CD20: CD20 Ca2+ Channel; ClC: Chloride Channel; Connexin: Gap Junction-forming Connexin; CytB: gp91phox Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase-associated Cytochrome b558 (CytB) H+-channel; E-ClC: Epithelial Chloride Channel; EnaC: Epithelial Na+ Channel; GIC: Glutamate-gated Ion Channel; Hsp70: Cation Channel-forming Heat Shock Protein-70; ICC: Intracellular Chloride Channel; Icln: Nucleotide-sensitive Anion-selective Channel; Innexin: Gap Junction-forming Innexin; IRK-C: Inward Rectifier K+ Channel; LIC: Ligand-gated Ion Channel of Neurotransmitter Receptors; Mid1: Yeast Stretch-Activated, Cation-Selective Ca2+ Channel Mid1; MIP: Major Intrinsic Protein; MIT: CorA Metal Ion Transporter; MscL: Large Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; MscS: Small Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; NSCC2: Non-selective Cation Channel-2; O-ClC: Organellar Chloride Channel; PCC: Polycystin Cation Channel; PLM: Phospholemman; RIR-CaC; Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Channel; Tic110: Chloroplast Envelope Anion Channel-forming Tic110; TRP-CC: Transient Receptor Potential Ca2+ Channel; UT: Urea Transporter; VIC: Voltage-gated Ion Channel
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2268718&req=5

Fig3: Comparison of numbers of channel genes among various organisms. Channel gene numbers were compared among many organisms (E. coli K12-MG1655, A. thaliana, O. sativa, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, H. sapiens NCBI, N. crassa 74-OR23-IVA, and S. cerevisiae S228C). ACC: ATP-gated Cation Channel; Bcl-2: Bcl-2; Bestrophin: Anion Channel-forming Bestrophin; CD20: CD20 Ca2+ Channel; ClC: Chloride Channel; Connexin: Gap Junction-forming Connexin; CytB: gp91phox Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase-associated Cytochrome b558 (CytB) H+-channel; E-ClC: Epithelial Chloride Channel; EnaC: Epithelial Na+ Channel; GIC: Glutamate-gated Ion Channel; Hsp70: Cation Channel-forming Heat Shock Protein-70; ICC: Intracellular Chloride Channel; Icln: Nucleotide-sensitive Anion-selective Channel; Innexin: Gap Junction-forming Innexin; IRK-C: Inward Rectifier K+ Channel; LIC: Ligand-gated Ion Channel of Neurotransmitter Receptors; Mid1: Yeast Stretch-Activated, Cation-Selective Ca2+ Channel Mid1; MIP: Major Intrinsic Protein; MIT: CorA Metal Ion Transporter; MscL: Large Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; MscS: Small Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel; NSCC2: Non-selective Cation Channel-2; O-ClC: Organellar Chloride Channel; PCC: Polycystin Cation Channel; PLM: Phospholemman; RIR-CaC; Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Channel; Tic110: Chloroplast Envelope Anion Channel-forming Tic110; TRP-CC: Transient Receptor Potential Ca2+ Channel; UT: Urea Transporter; VIC: Voltage-gated Ion Channel
Mentions: Ion channels are the “gates” in the membranes that open or close in response to signals such as mechanical or electrical stimulation and ligand binding. Therefore, ion channels are closely involved in determining whether or not ionic gradients are available. Multicellular organisms can control the ion concentrations in the tissues on both sides of the cell membrane, whereas monocellular organisms usually find it hard to control the ion gradient outside the cell. Thus, the use of ion channels becomes restrictive and unidirectional in these more primitive organisms. Unlike in eukaryotes, the channel system in prokaryotes is not well adapted to transport (Table 1, Fig. 3, and Supplemental data-3). Of the total number of genes encoding membrane transport proteins in prokaryotes, fewer than 5% are channel genes, and they mainly regulate osmotic homeostasis in the cell. Ions (e.g. Cl−, K+, metal), water, and osmolytes are imported or exported by the channels in their restricted role. In contrast, animals can make various ion gradients precisely and, in particular, can develop channel systems very well.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Plants use H(+) ions pooled in vacuoles and the apoplast to transport various substances; these proton gradients are also dependent on secondary active transporters.We also compared the numbers of membrane transporter genes in Arabidopsis and rice.Although many transporter genes are similar in these plants, Arabidopsis has a more diverse array of genes for multi-efflux transport and for response to stress signals, and rice has more secondary transporter genes for carbohydrate and nutrient transport.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Genome Research Unit, Division of Genome and Biodiversity Research, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Kannondai 2-1-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Comparative analyses of membrane transport genes revealed many differences in the features of transport homeostasis in eight diverse organisms, ranging from bacteria to animals and plants. In bacteria, membrane-transport systems depend mainly on single genes encoding proteins involved in an ATP-dependent pump and secondary transport proteins that use H(+) as a co-transport molecule. Animals are especially divergent in their channel genes, and plants have larger numbers of P-type ATPase and secondary active transporters than do other organisms. The secondary transporter genes have diverged evolutionarily in both animals and plants for different co-transporter molecules. Animals use Na(+) ions for the formation of concentration gradients across plasma membranes, dependent on secondary active transporters and on membrane voltages that in turn are dependent on ion transport regulation systems. Plants use H(+) ions pooled in vacuoles and the apoplast to transport various substances; these proton gradients are also dependent on secondary active transporters. We also compared the numbers of membrane transporter genes in Arabidopsis and rice. Although many transporter genes are similar in these plants, Arabidopsis has a more diverse array of genes for multi-efflux transport and for response to stress signals, and rice has more secondary transporter genes for carbohydrate and nutrient transport.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus