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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding regions of canine dopamine- and serotonin-related genes.

Våge J, Lingaas F - BMC Genet. (2008)

Bottom Line: Some of the canine SNPs exist in codons that are evolutionary conserved between five compared species, and predictions indicate that they may have a functional effect on the protein.Novel SNPs are presented and the results show a significant genetic variation in expressed sequences in this group of genes.The results can contribute to an improved understanding of the genetics of behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Genetics, Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway. jorn.vage@veths.no

ABSTRACT

Background: Polymorphism in genes of regulating enzymes, transporters and receptors of the neurotransmitters of the central nervous system have been associated with altered behaviour, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the most frequent type of genetic variation. The serotonin and dopamine signalling systems have a central influence on different behavioural phenotypes, both of invertebrates and vertebrates, and this study was undertaken in order to explore genetic variation that may be associated with variation in behaviour.

Results: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in canine genes related to behaviour were identified by individually sequencing eight dogs (Canis familiaris) of different breeds. Eighteen genes from the dopamine and the serotonin systems were screened, revealing 34 SNPs distributed in 14 of the 18 selected genes. A total of 24,895 bp coding sequence was sequenced yielding an average frequency of one SNP per 732 bp (1/732). A total of 11 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs), which may be involved in alteration of protein function, were detected. Of these 11 nsSNPs, six resulted in a substitution of amino acid residue with concomitant change in structural parameters.

Conclusion: We have identified a number of coding SNPs in behaviour-related genes, several of which change the amino acids of the proteins. Some of the canine SNPs exist in codons that are evolutionary conserved between five compared species, and predictions indicate that they may have a functional effect on the protein. The reported coding SNP frequency of the studied genes falls within the range of SNP frequencies reported earlier in the dog and other mammalian species. Novel SNPs are presented and the results show a significant genetic variation in expressed sequences in this group of genes. The results can contribute to an improved understanding of the genetics of behaviour.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Alignment showing amino acid variation across five species in location of nsSNPs. The alignment show selected parts of the protein sequence containing the 11 detected nsSNPs in the dog, marked as bold and underlined residues. Only four species are aligned for the DRD1 gene since there was no homologous gene available for the Chimpanzee (HomoloGene, [24]).
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Figure 1: Alignment showing amino acid variation across five species in location of nsSNPs. The alignment show selected parts of the protein sequence containing the 11 detected nsSNPs in the dog, marked as bold and underlined residues. Only four species are aligned for the DRD1 gene since there was no homologous gene available for the Chimpanzee (HomoloGene, [24]).

Mentions: The 34 SNPs comprised 23 synonymous and 11 non-synonymous, with the predicted changes in amino acids as described in Table 2 (for flanking nucleotide sequences see Additional file 1). Of the 11 nsSNPs, three held the first position, seven held the second position and one held the third position of the codon. Categorisation of the SNPs according to nucleotide substitution gave 31(91%) transitions and 3 (9%) transversions, the transversions all being nsSNPs. Six of the 11 nsSNPs resulted in a substitution of amino acid residue with a concomitant shift of class dependent on R group, and change in structural parameters (Table 3). Looking at conservation of amino acids in the location of detected nsSNPs we found that across five mammalian species (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Canis familiaris, Mus musculus and Rattus norvegius, at HomoloGene, [24]) four of the sites were reported invariant and seven reported variable (Table 3). Part of the alignment of the protein products from these five species, containing the canine nsSNPs (ClustalW, [25]) are shown in Figure 1.


Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding regions of canine dopamine- and serotonin-related genes.

Våge J, Lingaas F - BMC Genet. (2008)

Alignment showing amino acid variation across five species in location of nsSNPs. The alignment show selected parts of the protein sequence containing the 11 detected nsSNPs in the dog, marked as bold and underlined residues. Only four species are aligned for the DRD1 gene since there was no homologous gene available for the Chimpanzee (HomoloGene, [24]).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2268707&req=5

Figure 1: Alignment showing amino acid variation across five species in location of nsSNPs. The alignment show selected parts of the protein sequence containing the 11 detected nsSNPs in the dog, marked as bold and underlined residues. Only four species are aligned for the DRD1 gene since there was no homologous gene available for the Chimpanzee (HomoloGene, [24]).
Mentions: The 34 SNPs comprised 23 synonymous and 11 non-synonymous, with the predicted changes in amino acids as described in Table 2 (for flanking nucleotide sequences see Additional file 1). Of the 11 nsSNPs, three held the first position, seven held the second position and one held the third position of the codon. Categorisation of the SNPs according to nucleotide substitution gave 31(91%) transitions and 3 (9%) transversions, the transversions all being nsSNPs. Six of the 11 nsSNPs resulted in a substitution of amino acid residue with a concomitant shift of class dependent on R group, and change in structural parameters (Table 3). Looking at conservation of amino acids in the location of detected nsSNPs we found that across five mammalian species (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Canis familiaris, Mus musculus and Rattus norvegius, at HomoloGene, [24]) four of the sites were reported invariant and seven reported variable (Table 3). Part of the alignment of the protein products from these five species, containing the canine nsSNPs (ClustalW, [25]) are shown in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Some of the canine SNPs exist in codons that are evolutionary conserved between five compared species, and predictions indicate that they may have a functional effect on the protein.Novel SNPs are presented and the results show a significant genetic variation in expressed sequences in this group of genes.The results can contribute to an improved understanding of the genetics of behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Genetics, Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway. jorn.vage@veths.no

ABSTRACT

Background: Polymorphism in genes of regulating enzymes, transporters and receptors of the neurotransmitters of the central nervous system have been associated with altered behaviour, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the most frequent type of genetic variation. The serotonin and dopamine signalling systems have a central influence on different behavioural phenotypes, both of invertebrates and vertebrates, and this study was undertaken in order to explore genetic variation that may be associated with variation in behaviour.

Results: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in canine genes related to behaviour were identified by individually sequencing eight dogs (Canis familiaris) of different breeds. Eighteen genes from the dopamine and the serotonin systems were screened, revealing 34 SNPs distributed in 14 of the 18 selected genes. A total of 24,895 bp coding sequence was sequenced yielding an average frequency of one SNP per 732 bp (1/732). A total of 11 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs), which may be involved in alteration of protein function, were detected. Of these 11 nsSNPs, six resulted in a substitution of amino acid residue with concomitant change in structural parameters.

Conclusion: We have identified a number of coding SNPs in behaviour-related genes, several of which change the amino acids of the proteins. Some of the canine SNPs exist in codons that are evolutionary conserved between five compared species, and predictions indicate that they may have a functional effect on the protein. The reported coding SNP frequency of the studied genes falls within the range of SNP frequencies reported earlier in the dog and other mammalian species. Novel SNPs are presented and the results show a significant genetic variation in expressed sequences in this group of genes. The results can contribute to an improved understanding of the genetics of behaviour.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus