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Differences in pharmaceutical consumption and expenses between immigrant and Spanish-born populations in Lleida, (Spain): a 6-months prospective observational study.

Rue M, Serna MC, Soler-Gonzalez J, Bosch A, Ruiz-Magaz MC, Galvan L - BMC Health Serv Res (2008)

Bottom Line: The relative risks of being in the highest quartile of expenditure, for Spanish-born versus immigrants, were 6.9, 95% CI = (4.2, 11.5) in men and 5.3, 95% CI = (3.5, 8.0) in women, with the reference category being not having any pharmaceutical expenditure.Pharmaceutical expenses are much lower for immigrants with respect to autochthonous patients, both in the percentage of prescriptions filled at pharmacies and the number of containers of medication obtained, as well as the prices of the medications used.Future studies should explore which factors explain the observed differences in pharmaceutical expenses and if these disparities produce health inequalities.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Research Institut, Lleida (IRBLLEIDA), Spain. montse.rue@cmb.udl.cat

ABSTRACT

Background: There are few studies comparing pharmaceutical costs and the use of medications between immigrants and the autochthonous population in Spain. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether there are differences in pharmaceutical consumption and expenses between immigrant and Spanish-born populations.

Methods: Prospective observational study in 1,630 immigrants and 4,154 Spanish-born individuals visited by fifteen primary care physicians at five public Primary Care Clinics (PCC) during 2005 in the city of Lleida, Catalonia (Spain). Data on pharmaceutical consumption and expenses was obtained from a comprehensive computerized data-collection system. Multinomial regression models were used to estimate relative risks and confidence intervals of pharmaceutical expenditure, adjusting for age and sex.

Results: The percentage of individuals that purchased medications during a six-month period was 53.7% in the immigrant group and 79.2% in the autochthonous group. Pharmaceutical expenses and consumption were lower in immigrants than in autochthonous patients in all age groups and both genders. The relative risks of being in the highest quartile of expenditure, for Spanish-born versus immigrants, were 6.9, 95% CI = (4.2, 11.5) in men and 5.3, 95% CI = (3.5, 8.0) in women, with the reference category being not having any pharmaceutical expenditure.

Conclusion: Pharmaceutical expenses are much lower for immigrants with respect to autochthonous patients, both in the percentage of prescriptions filled at pharmacies and the number of containers of medication obtained, as well as the prices of the medications used. Future studies should explore which factors explain the observed differences in pharmaceutical expenses and if these disparities produce health inequalities.

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Box-and-whisker plot of pharmaceutical expenditures in 6 months after a primary care visit, by immigrant status.
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Figure 1: Box-and-whisker plot of pharmaceutical expenditures in 6 months after a primary care visit, by immigrant status.

Mentions: Figure 1 shows a box-and-whisker plot of the distribution of pharmaceutical expenses, by immigrant and autochthonous patients, over a six-month period. The middle fifty percent of the immigrant group spent between 0€ and 17€, while the middle fifty percent of autochthonous patients spent between 4.1€ and 219.7€. In immigrants, the median expense (3.1€) was less than that of the autochthonous patients (39.6€).


Differences in pharmaceutical consumption and expenses between immigrant and Spanish-born populations in Lleida, (Spain): a 6-months prospective observational study.

Rue M, Serna MC, Soler-Gonzalez J, Bosch A, Ruiz-Magaz MC, Galvan L - BMC Health Serv Res (2008)

Box-and-whisker plot of pharmaceutical expenditures in 6 months after a primary care visit, by immigrant status.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2268680&req=5

Figure 1: Box-and-whisker plot of pharmaceutical expenditures in 6 months after a primary care visit, by immigrant status.
Mentions: Figure 1 shows a box-and-whisker plot of the distribution of pharmaceutical expenses, by immigrant and autochthonous patients, over a six-month period. The middle fifty percent of the immigrant group spent between 0€ and 17€, while the middle fifty percent of autochthonous patients spent between 4.1€ and 219.7€. In immigrants, the median expense (3.1€) was less than that of the autochthonous patients (39.6€).

Bottom Line: The relative risks of being in the highest quartile of expenditure, for Spanish-born versus immigrants, were 6.9, 95% CI = (4.2, 11.5) in men and 5.3, 95% CI = (3.5, 8.0) in women, with the reference category being not having any pharmaceutical expenditure.Pharmaceutical expenses are much lower for immigrants with respect to autochthonous patients, both in the percentage of prescriptions filled at pharmacies and the number of containers of medication obtained, as well as the prices of the medications used.Future studies should explore which factors explain the observed differences in pharmaceutical expenses and if these disparities produce health inequalities.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Research Institut, Lleida (IRBLLEIDA), Spain. montse.rue@cmb.udl.cat

ABSTRACT

Background: There are few studies comparing pharmaceutical costs and the use of medications between immigrants and the autochthonous population in Spain. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether there are differences in pharmaceutical consumption and expenses between immigrant and Spanish-born populations.

Methods: Prospective observational study in 1,630 immigrants and 4,154 Spanish-born individuals visited by fifteen primary care physicians at five public Primary Care Clinics (PCC) during 2005 in the city of Lleida, Catalonia (Spain). Data on pharmaceutical consumption and expenses was obtained from a comprehensive computerized data-collection system. Multinomial regression models were used to estimate relative risks and confidence intervals of pharmaceutical expenditure, adjusting for age and sex.

Results: The percentage of individuals that purchased medications during a six-month period was 53.7% in the immigrant group and 79.2% in the autochthonous group. Pharmaceutical expenses and consumption were lower in immigrants than in autochthonous patients in all age groups and both genders. The relative risks of being in the highest quartile of expenditure, for Spanish-born versus immigrants, were 6.9, 95% CI = (4.2, 11.5) in men and 5.3, 95% CI = (3.5, 8.0) in women, with the reference category being not having any pharmaceutical expenditure.

Conclusion: Pharmaceutical expenses are much lower for immigrants with respect to autochthonous patients, both in the percentage of prescriptions filled at pharmacies and the number of containers of medication obtained, as well as the prices of the medications used. Future studies should explore which factors explain the observed differences in pharmaceutical expenses and if these disparities produce health inequalities.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus