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Infection of semen-producing organs by SIV during the acute and chronic stages of the disease.

Le Tortorec A, Le Grand R, Denis H, Satie AP, Mannioui K, Roques P, Maillard A, Daniels S, Jégou B, Dejucq-Rainsford N - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: We demonstrate for the first time the presence of SIV in the testes, epididymides, prostate and seminal vesicles as early as 14 days post-inoculation.Within the male genital tract, mostly T lymphocytes and a small number of germ cells harbour SIV antigens and RNA.In contrast to the other organs studied, the testis does not display an immune response to the infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INSERM U625, Rennes, University of Rennes I, Groupe d'Etude de la Reproduction chez l'Homme et les Mammifères, IFR 140, Campus de Beaulieu, Rennes, France.

ABSTRACT

Background: Although indirect evidence suggests the male genital tract as a possible source of persistent HIV shedding in semen during antiretroviral therapy, this phenomenon is poorly understood due to the difficulty of sampling semen-producing organs in HIV+ asymptomatic individuals.

Methodology/principal findings: Using a range of molecular and cell biological techniques, this study investigates SIV infection within reproductive organs of macaques during the acute and chronic stages of the disease. We demonstrate for the first time the presence of SIV in the testes, epididymides, prostate and seminal vesicles as early as 14 days post-inoculation. This infection persists throughout the chronic stage and positively correlates with blood viremia. The prostate and seminal vesicles appear to be the most efficiently infected reproductive organs, followed by the epididymides and testes. Within the male genital tract, mostly T lymphocytes and a small number of germ cells harbour SIV antigens and RNA. In contrast to the other organs studied, the testis does not display an immune response to the infection. Testosteronemia is transiently increased during the early phase of the infection but spermatogenesis remains unaffected.

Conclusions/significance: The present study reveals that SIV infection of the macaque male genital tract is an early event and that semen-producing organs display differential infection levels and immune responses. These results help elucidate the origin of HIV in semen and constitute an essential base to improving the design of antiretroviral therapies to eradicate virus from semen.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cytokine mRNAs expression.Pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines transcripts expression in testis and prostate tissues, as measured by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Each point represents the mean cytokine copy number of 2 independent fragments from one animal. Stars indicate statistical difference between non-infected and infected-macaques (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05).
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pone-0001792-g008: Cytokine mRNAs expression.Pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines transcripts expression in testis and prostate tissues, as measured by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Each point represents the mean cytokine copy number of 2 independent fragments from one animal. Stars indicate statistical difference between non-infected and infected-macaques (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05).

Mentions: Within the testis, the levels of expression of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGFβ and pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, IL-1β, TNFα transcripts was not significantly changed following infection (Figure 8).


Infection of semen-producing organs by SIV during the acute and chronic stages of the disease.

Le Tortorec A, Le Grand R, Denis H, Satie AP, Mannioui K, Roques P, Maillard A, Daniels S, Jégou B, Dejucq-Rainsford N - PLoS ONE (2008)

Cytokine mRNAs expression.Pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines transcripts expression in testis and prostate tissues, as measured by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Each point represents the mean cytokine copy number of 2 independent fragments from one animal. Stars indicate statistical difference between non-infected and infected-macaques (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2268241&req=5

pone-0001792-g008: Cytokine mRNAs expression.Pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines transcripts expression in testis and prostate tissues, as measured by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Each point represents the mean cytokine copy number of 2 independent fragments from one animal. Stars indicate statistical difference between non-infected and infected-macaques (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05).
Mentions: Within the testis, the levels of expression of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGFβ and pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, IL-1β, TNFα transcripts was not significantly changed following infection (Figure 8).

Bottom Line: We demonstrate for the first time the presence of SIV in the testes, epididymides, prostate and seminal vesicles as early as 14 days post-inoculation.Within the male genital tract, mostly T lymphocytes and a small number of germ cells harbour SIV antigens and RNA.In contrast to the other organs studied, the testis does not display an immune response to the infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INSERM U625, Rennes, University of Rennes I, Groupe d'Etude de la Reproduction chez l'Homme et les Mammifères, IFR 140, Campus de Beaulieu, Rennes, France.

ABSTRACT

Background: Although indirect evidence suggests the male genital tract as a possible source of persistent HIV shedding in semen during antiretroviral therapy, this phenomenon is poorly understood due to the difficulty of sampling semen-producing organs in HIV+ asymptomatic individuals.

Methodology/principal findings: Using a range of molecular and cell biological techniques, this study investigates SIV infection within reproductive organs of macaques during the acute and chronic stages of the disease. We demonstrate for the first time the presence of SIV in the testes, epididymides, prostate and seminal vesicles as early as 14 days post-inoculation. This infection persists throughout the chronic stage and positively correlates with blood viremia. The prostate and seminal vesicles appear to be the most efficiently infected reproductive organs, followed by the epididymides and testes. Within the male genital tract, mostly T lymphocytes and a small number of germ cells harbour SIV antigens and RNA. In contrast to the other organs studied, the testis does not display an immune response to the infection. Testosteronemia is transiently increased during the early phase of the infection but spermatogenesis remains unaffected.

Conclusions/significance: The present study reveals that SIV infection of the macaque male genital tract is an early event and that semen-producing organs display differential infection levels and immune responses. These results help elucidate the origin of HIV in semen and constitute an essential base to improving the design of antiretroviral therapies to eradicate virus from semen.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus