Limits...
Risk factors for house-entry by malaria vectors in a rural town and satellite villages in The Gambia.

Kirby MJ, Green C, Milligan PM, Sismanidis C, Jasseh M, Conway DJ, Lindsay SW - Malar. J. (2008)

Bottom Line: Catches from individual houses were both (a) left unadjusted and (b) adjusted relative to the number of mosquitoes caught in four sentinel houses that were operated nightly throughout the period, to allow for night-to-night variation.Using the unadjusted data the presence of nuisance mosquitoes was reduced if the house was located in the town (odds ratio, OR = 0.11, 95% CIs = 0.09-0.13), the eaves were closed (OR = 0.71, 0.60-0.85), a horse was tethered near the house (OR = 0.77, 0.73-0.82), and churai, a local incense, was burned in the room at night (OR = 0.56, 0.47-0.66).Mosquito numbers increased per additional person in the house (OR = 1.04, 1.02-1.06) or trapping room (OR = 1.19, 1.13-1.25) and when the walls were made of mud blocks compared with concrete (OR = 1.44, 1.10-1.87).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK. m.j.kirby@durham.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: In the pre-intervention year of a randomized controlled trial investigating the protective effects of house screening against malaria-transmitting vectors, a multi-factorial risk factor analysis study was used to identify factors that influence mosquito house entry.

Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled using CDC light traps in 976 houses, each on one night, in Farafenni town and surrounding villages during the malaria-transmission season in The Gambia. Catches from individual houses were both (a) left unadjusted and (b) adjusted relative to the number of mosquitoes caught in four sentinel houses that were operated nightly throughout the period, to allow for night-to-night variation. Houses were characterized by location, architecture, human occupancy and their mosquito control activities, and the number and type of domestic animals within the compound.

Results: 106,536 mosquitoes were caught, of which 55% were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, the major malaria vectors in the region. There were seven fold higher numbers of An. gambiae s.l. in the villages (geometric mean per trap night = 43.7, 95% confidence intervals, CIs = 39.5-48.4) than in Farafenni town (6.3, 5.7-7.2) and significant variation between residential blocks (p < 0.001). A negative binomial multivariate model performed equally well using unadjusted or adjusted trap data. Using the unadjusted data the presence of nuisance mosquitoes was reduced if the house was located in the town (odds ratio, OR = 0.11, 95% CIs = 0.09-0.13), the eaves were closed (OR = 0.71, 0.60-0.85), a horse was tethered near the house (OR = 0.77, 0.73-0.82), and churai, a local incense, was burned in the room at night (OR = 0.56, 0.47-0.66). Mosquito numbers increased per additional person in the house (OR = 1.04, 1.02-1.06) or trapping room (OR = 1.19, 1.13-1.25) and when the walls were made of mud blocks compared with concrete (OR = 1.44, 1.10-1.87).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the risk of malaria transmission is greatest in rural areas, where large numbers of people sleep in houses made of mud blocks, where the eaves are open, horses are not tethered nearby and where churai is not burnt at night. These factors need to be considered in the design and analysis of intervention studies designed to reduce malaria transmission in The Gambia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Relative abundance of An. gambiae s.l. in study blocks (no. of houses sampled). Circle diameters are proportional to geometric mean no. of An. gambiae caught/light trap/night for each block.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2267476&req=5

Figure 2: Relative abundance of An. gambiae s.l. in study blocks (no. of houses sampled). Circle diameters are proportional to geometric mean no. of An. gambiae caught/light trap/night for each block.

Mentions: Multivariate analysis on the data unadjusted or adjusted for sentinel house mosquito counts gave extremely similar results. Thus the results derived from the unadjusted values are presented. The risk of finding An. gambiae s.l. indoors was 89% less in town than in rural homes. The spatial abundance of mosquitoes collected in different parts of the study area is shown in Figure 2.


Risk factors for house-entry by malaria vectors in a rural town and satellite villages in The Gambia.

Kirby MJ, Green C, Milligan PM, Sismanidis C, Jasseh M, Conway DJ, Lindsay SW - Malar. J. (2008)

Relative abundance of An. gambiae s.l. in study blocks (no. of houses sampled). Circle diameters are proportional to geometric mean no. of An. gambiae caught/light trap/night for each block.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2267476&req=5

Figure 2: Relative abundance of An. gambiae s.l. in study blocks (no. of houses sampled). Circle diameters are proportional to geometric mean no. of An. gambiae caught/light trap/night for each block.
Mentions: Multivariate analysis on the data unadjusted or adjusted for sentinel house mosquito counts gave extremely similar results. Thus the results derived from the unadjusted values are presented. The risk of finding An. gambiae s.l. indoors was 89% less in town than in rural homes. The spatial abundance of mosquitoes collected in different parts of the study area is shown in Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Catches from individual houses were both (a) left unadjusted and (b) adjusted relative to the number of mosquitoes caught in four sentinel houses that were operated nightly throughout the period, to allow for night-to-night variation.Using the unadjusted data the presence of nuisance mosquitoes was reduced if the house was located in the town (odds ratio, OR = 0.11, 95% CIs = 0.09-0.13), the eaves were closed (OR = 0.71, 0.60-0.85), a horse was tethered near the house (OR = 0.77, 0.73-0.82), and churai, a local incense, was burned in the room at night (OR = 0.56, 0.47-0.66).Mosquito numbers increased per additional person in the house (OR = 1.04, 1.02-1.06) or trapping room (OR = 1.19, 1.13-1.25) and when the walls were made of mud blocks compared with concrete (OR = 1.44, 1.10-1.87).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK. m.j.kirby@durham.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: In the pre-intervention year of a randomized controlled trial investigating the protective effects of house screening against malaria-transmitting vectors, a multi-factorial risk factor analysis study was used to identify factors that influence mosquito house entry.

Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled using CDC light traps in 976 houses, each on one night, in Farafenni town and surrounding villages during the malaria-transmission season in The Gambia. Catches from individual houses were both (a) left unadjusted and (b) adjusted relative to the number of mosquitoes caught in four sentinel houses that were operated nightly throughout the period, to allow for night-to-night variation. Houses were characterized by location, architecture, human occupancy and their mosquito control activities, and the number and type of domestic animals within the compound.

Results: 106,536 mosquitoes were caught, of which 55% were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, the major malaria vectors in the region. There were seven fold higher numbers of An. gambiae s.l. in the villages (geometric mean per trap night = 43.7, 95% confidence intervals, CIs = 39.5-48.4) than in Farafenni town (6.3, 5.7-7.2) and significant variation between residential blocks (p < 0.001). A negative binomial multivariate model performed equally well using unadjusted or adjusted trap data. Using the unadjusted data the presence of nuisance mosquitoes was reduced if the house was located in the town (odds ratio, OR = 0.11, 95% CIs = 0.09-0.13), the eaves were closed (OR = 0.71, 0.60-0.85), a horse was tethered near the house (OR = 0.77, 0.73-0.82), and churai, a local incense, was burned in the room at night (OR = 0.56, 0.47-0.66). Mosquito numbers increased per additional person in the house (OR = 1.04, 1.02-1.06) or trapping room (OR = 1.19, 1.13-1.25) and when the walls were made of mud blocks compared with concrete (OR = 1.44, 1.10-1.87).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the risk of malaria transmission is greatest in rural areas, where large numbers of people sleep in houses made of mud blocks, where the eaves are open, horses are not tethered nearby and where churai is not burnt at night. These factors need to be considered in the design and analysis of intervention studies designed to reduce malaria transmission in The Gambia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus