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Mapping peptidergic cells in Drosophila: where DIMM fits in.

Park D, Veenstra JA, Park JH, Taghert PH - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: The bHLH transcription factor DIMMED has been associated with the differentiation of peptidergic cells in Drosophila.Furthermore, we found that DIMM co-expression was a prevalent feature within single neuropeptide marker expression patterns.LEAP denotes Large cells that display Episodic release of Amidated Peptides.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The bHLH transcription factor DIMMED has been associated with the differentiation of peptidergic cells in Drosophila. However, whether all Drosophila peptidergic cells express DIMM, and the extent to which all DIMM cells are peptidergic, have not been determined. To address these issues, we have mapped DIMM expression in the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery in the late larval stage Drosophila. At 100 hr after egg-laying, DIMM immunosignals are largely congruent with a dimm-promoter reporter (c929-GAL4) and they present a stereotyped pattern of 306 CNS cells and 52 peripheral cells. We assigned positional values for all DIMM CNS cells with respect to reference gene expression patterns, or to patterns of secondary neuroblast lineages. We could assign provisional peptide identities to 68% of DIMM-expressing CNS cells (207/306) and to 73% of DIMM-expressing peripheral cells (38/52) using a panel of 24 markers for Drosophila neuropeptide genes. Furthermore, we found that DIMM co-expression was a prevalent feature within single neuropeptide marker expression patterns. Of the 24 CNS neuropeptide gene patterns we studied, six patterns are >90% DIMM-positive, while 16 of 22 patterns are >40% DIMM-positive. Thus most or all DIMM cells in Drosophila appear to be peptidergic, and many but not all peptidergic cells express DIMM. The co-incidence of DIMM-expression among peptidergic cells is best explained by a hypothesis that DIMM promotes a specific neurosecretory phenotype we term LEAP. LEAP denotes Large cells that display Episodic release of Amidated Peptides.

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The expression patterns of five neuropeptide markers within DIMM-expressing neurons of the PI.(A) DIMM and c929-GAL4 are co-localized within 16 PI neurons. (B) All dILP2-expressing neurons are DIMM-positive. (C) The two SIFa-positive neurons are both DIMM-positive. (D) The three DH 44-expressing neurons are all DIMM-positive. (E) All seven DSK-GAL4-positive neurons are DIMM-positive. (F) The DMS-positive neurons are DIMM-positive. (G) The seven DSK-GAL4-positive neurons (as visualized with UAS-lacZ) are dILP2-positive. (H) dILP2-positive neurons and SIFa-positive neurons are distinct. (I) dILP2-positive neurons and DMS-positive neurons are distinct. (J) dILP2-positive neurons and DH 44-positive neurons are distinct. (K) The SIFa-positive and DMS-positive neurons are distinct. (L) The SIFa-positive and DH 44-positive neurons are distinct. The results are illustrated in the schematic at the bottom of the figure and in Table 2.
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pone-0001896-g008: The expression patterns of five neuropeptide markers within DIMM-expressing neurons of the PI.(A) DIMM and c929-GAL4 are co-localized within 16 PI neurons. (B) All dILP2-expressing neurons are DIMM-positive. (C) The two SIFa-positive neurons are both DIMM-positive. (D) The three DH 44-expressing neurons are all DIMM-positive. (E) All seven DSK-GAL4-positive neurons are DIMM-positive. (F) The DMS-positive neurons are DIMM-positive. (G) The seven DSK-GAL4-positive neurons (as visualized with UAS-lacZ) are dILP2-positive. (H) dILP2-positive neurons and SIFa-positive neurons are distinct. (I) dILP2-positive neurons and DMS-positive neurons are distinct. (J) dILP2-positive neurons and DH 44-positive neurons are distinct. (K) The SIFa-positive and DMS-positive neurons are distinct. (L) The SIFa-positive and DH 44-positive neurons are distinct. The results are illustrated in the schematic at the bottom of the figure and in Table 2.

Mentions: Table S1 provides the summary of numerical results from this analysis; Table 2 lists the markers used. Figure 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 provide more details of DIMM/peptide marker overlap for each CNS region and for each peptide marker. Overlap of DIMM and different peptides varies from complete to virtually none. (A) An example of a peptide system that exhibits complete overlap with DIMM: Hugin-YFP-neurons in S1 and S2 are all strongly DIMM-positive. (B) Of several COR-immunopositive neurons in the CNS, several are DIMM positive. (C–E). Examples of peptide systems that exhibit partial overlap with DIMM. (C) The most strongly stained Ast-A-positive neurons are also DIMM-positive. (D) Likewise, the most strongly stained CCAP-expressing neurons are DIMM-positive (arrow), while the weakly stained cell is DIMM-negative (arrowhead). (E) The dTK system shows only a single DIMM-positive cell (arrow) among many DIMM-negative dTK-expressing cells (arrowheads): it is the largest and most strongly-stained. (F) An example of little or no overlap with DIMM: anti-proctolin antibodies label several hundred neurons in the CNS, of which only one cell type–the Ap-let neuron [35] is weakly stained by proctolin antibodies but is strongly DIMM-positive. NPs: neuropeptides.


Mapping peptidergic cells in Drosophila: where DIMM fits in.

Park D, Veenstra JA, Park JH, Taghert PH - PLoS ONE (2008)

The expression patterns of five neuropeptide markers within DIMM-expressing neurons of the PI.(A) DIMM and c929-GAL4 are co-localized within 16 PI neurons. (B) All dILP2-expressing neurons are DIMM-positive. (C) The two SIFa-positive neurons are both DIMM-positive. (D) The three DH 44-expressing neurons are all DIMM-positive. (E) All seven DSK-GAL4-positive neurons are DIMM-positive. (F) The DMS-positive neurons are DIMM-positive. (G) The seven DSK-GAL4-positive neurons (as visualized with UAS-lacZ) are dILP2-positive. (H) dILP2-positive neurons and SIFa-positive neurons are distinct. (I) dILP2-positive neurons and DMS-positive neurons are distinct. (J) dILP2-positive neurons and DH 44-positive neurons are distinct. (K) The SIFa-positive and DMS-positive neurons are distinct. (L) The SIFa-positive and DH 44-positive neurons are distinct. The results are illustrated in the schematic at the bottom of the figure and in Table 2.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2266995&req=5

pone-0001896-g008: The expression patterns of five neuropeptide markers within DIMM-expressing neurons of the PI.(A) DIMM and c929-GAL4 are co-localized within 16 PI neurons. (B) All dILP2-expressing neurons are DIMM-positive. (C) The two SIFa-positive neurons are both DIMM-positive. (D) The three DH 44-expressing neurons are all DIMM-positive. (E) All seven DSK-GAL4-positive neurons are DIMM-positive. (F) The DMS-positive neurons are DIMM-positive. (G) The seven DSK-GAL4-positive neurons (as visualized with UAS-lacZ) are dILP2-positive. (H) dILP2-positive neurons and SIFa-positive neurons are distinct. (I) dILP2-positive neurons and DMS-positive neurons are distinct. (J) dILP2-positive neurons and DH 44-positive neurons are distinct. (K) The SIFa-positive and DMS-positive neurons are distinct. (L) The SIFa-positive and DH 44-positive neurons are distinct. The results are illustrated in the schematic at the bottom of the figure and in Table 2.
Mentions: Table S1 provides the summary of numerical results from this analysis; Table 2 lists the markers used. Figure 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 provide more details of DIMM/peptide marker overlap for each CNS region and for each peptide marker. Overlap of DIMM and different peptides varies from complete to virtually none. (A) An example of a peptide system that exhibits complete overlap with DIMM: Hugin-YFP-neurons in S1 and S2 are all strongly DIMM-positive. (B) Of several COR-immunopositive neurons in the CNS, several are DIMM positive. (C–E). Examples of peptide systems that exhibit partial overlap with DIMM. (C) The most strongly stained Ast-A-positive neurons are also DIMM-positive. (D) Likewise, the most strongly stained CCAP-expressing neurons are DIMM-positive (arrow), while the weakly stained cell is DIMM-negative (arrowhead). (E) The dTK system shows only a single DIMM-positive cell (arrow) among many DIMM-negative dTK-expressing cells (arrowheads): it is the largest and most strongly-stained. (F) An example of little or no overlap with DIMM: anti-proctolin antibodies label several hundred neurons in the CNS, of which only one cell type–the Ap-let neuron [35] is weakly stained by proctolin antibodies but is strongly DIMM-positive. NPs: neuropeptides.

Bottom Line: The bHLH transcription factor DIMMED has been associated with the differentiation of peptidergic cells in Drosophila.Furthermore, we found that DIMM co-expression was a prevalent feature within single neuropeptide marker expression patterns.LEAP denotes Large cells that display Episodic release of Amidated Peptides.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The bHLH transcription factor DIMMED has been associated with the differentiation of peptidergic cells in Drosophila. However, whether all Drosophila peptidergic cells express DIMM, and the extent to which all DIMM cells are peptidergic, have not been determined. To address these issues, we have mapped DIMM expression in the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery in the late larval stage Drosophila. At 100 hr after egg-laying, DIMM immunosignals are largely congruent with a dimm-promoter reporter (c929-GAL4) and they present a stereotyped pattern of 306 CNS cells and 52 peripheral cells. We assigned positional values for all DIMM CNS cells with respect to reference gene expression patterns, or to patterns of secondary neuroblast lineages. We could assign provisional peptide identities to 68% of DIMM-expressing CNS cells (207/306) and to 73% of DIMM-expressing peripheral cells (38/52) using a panel of 24 markers for Drosophila neuropeptide genes. Furthermore, we found that DIMM co-expression was a prevalent feature within single neuropeptide marker expression patterns. Of the 24 CNS neuropeptide gene patterns we studied, six patterns are >90% DIMM-positive, while 16 of 22 patterns are >40% DIMM-positive. Thus most or all DIMM cells in Drosophila appear to be peptidergic, and many but not all peptidergic cells express DIMM. The co-incidence of DIMM-expression among peptidergic cells is best explained by a hypothesis that DIMM promotes a specific neurosecretory phenotype we term LEAP. LEAP denotes Large cells that display Episodic release of Amidated Peptides.

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