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Mapping peptidergic cells in Drosophila: where DIMM fits in.

Park D, Veenstra JA, Park JH, Taghert PH - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: The bHLH transcription factor DIMMED has been associated with the differentiation of peptidergic cells in Drosophila.Furthermore, we found that DIMM co-expression was a prevalent feature within single neuropeptide marker expression patterns.LEAP denotes Large cells that display Episodic release of Amidated Peptides.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The bHLH transcription factor DIMMED has been associated with the differentiation of peptidergic cells in Drosophila. However, whether all Drosophila peptidergic cells express DIMM, and the extent to which all DIMM cells are peptidergic, have not been determined. To address these issues, we have mapped DIMM expression in the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery in the late larval stage Drosophila. At 100 hr after egg-laying, DIMM immunosignals are largely congruent with a dimm-promoter reporter (c929-GAL4) and they present a stereotyped pattern of 306 CNS cells and 52 peripheral cells. We assigned positional values for all DIMM CNS cells with respect to reference gene expression patterns, or to patterns of secondary neuroblast lineages. We could assign provisional peptide identities to 68% of DIMM-expressing CNS cells (207/306) and to 73% of DIMM-expressing peripheral cells (38/52) using a panel of 24 markers for Drosophila neuropeptide genes. Furthermore, we found that DIMM co-expression was a prevalent feature within single neuropeptide marker expression patterns. Of the 24 CNS neuropeptide gene patterns we studied, six patterns are >90% DIMM-positive, while 16 of 22 patterns are >40% DIMM-positive. Thus most or all DIMM cells in Drosophila appear to be peptidergic, and many but not all peptidergic cells express DIMM. The co-incidence of DIMM-expression among peptidergic cells is best explained by a hypothesis that DIMM promotes a specific neurosecretory phenotype we term LEAP. LEAP denotes Large cells that display Episodic release of Amidated Peptides.

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DIMM immunostaining and its correspondence to c929-GAL4 expression.A) Anti-DIMM staining in St 17 wild type embryo and (B) in a dimm mutant (Rev8/Rev4). Asterisks mark the peripheral LBD neuron; Arrowheads mark positions of the Inka cell. C) c929(dimm) signals are highly congruent with DIMM antibody staining. Arrows mark the few DIMM cells that are not c929-positive. DIMM-positive neurons are also c929-positive in (D) the stomatogastric nervous system (SNS), and (E) in the sixteen cells of corpora cardiaca (CC) within the Ring Gland.
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pone-0001896-g001: DIMM immunostaining and its correspondence to c929-GAL4 expression.A) Anti-DIMM staining in St 17 wild type embryo and (B) in a dimm mutant (Rev8/Rev4). Asterisks mark the peripheral LBD neuron; Arrowheads mark positions of the Inka cell. C) c929(dimm) signals are highly congruent with DIMM antibody staining. Arrows mark the few DIMM cells that are not c929-positive. DIMM-positive neurons are also c929-positive in (D) the stomatogastric nervous system (SNS), and (E) in the sixteen cells of corpora cardiaca (CC) within the Ring Gland.

Mentions: The P element c929-gal4 is inserted within the gene cryptocephal and lies ∼13kb upstream of dimm (Hewes et al., 2003). We previously showed that the expression of crc mRNA is largely ubiquitous in the larval central nervous system (CNS), while that of dimm paralleled the c929-GAL4 pattern. To investigate this correspondence at the protein level and with better resolution, we used antibodies directed against the C-terminal domain of the DIMM protein as described by Allan et al. [34]. Here we show in the 3rd larval instar, most c929-positive cells represent DIMM-positive cells (Figure 1).


Mapping peptidergic cells in Drosophila: where DIMM fits in.

Park D, Veenstra JA, Park JH, Taghert PH - PLoS ONE (2008)

DIMM immunostaining and its correspondence to c929-GAL4 expression.A) Anti-DIMM staining in St 17 wild type embryo and (B) in a dimm mutant (Rev8/Rev4). Asterisks mark the peripheral LBD neuron; Arrowheads mark positions of the Inka cell. C) c929(dimm) signals are highly congruent with DIMM antibody staining. Arrows mark the few DIMM cells that are not c929-positive. DIMM-positive neurons are also c929-positive in (D) the stomatogastric nervous system (SNS), and (E) in the sixteen cells of corpora cardiaca (CC) within the Ring Gland.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2266995&req=5

pone-0001896-g001: DIMM immunostaining and its correspondence to c929-GAL4 expression.A) Anti-DIMM staining in St 17 wild type embryo and (B) in a dimm mutant (Rev8/Rev4). Asterisks mark the peripheral LBD neuron; Arrowheads mark positions of the Inka cell. C) c929(dimm) signals are highly congruent with DIMM antibody staining. Arrows mark the few DIMM cells that are not c929-positive. DIMM-positive neurons are also c929-positive in (D) the stomatogastric nervous system (SNS), and (E) in the sixteen cells of corpora cardiaca (CC) within the Ring Gland.
Mentions: The P element c929-gal4 is inserted within the gene cryptocephal and lies ∼13kb upstream of dimm (Hewes et al., 2003). We previously showed that the expression of crc mRNA is largely ubiquitous in the larval central nervous system (CNS), while that of dimm paralleled the c929-GAL4 pattern. To investigate this correspondence at the protein level and with better resolution, we used antibodies directed against the C-terminal domain of the DIMM protein as described by Allan et al. [34]. Here we show in the 3rd larval instar, most c929-positive cells represent DIMM-positive cells (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: The bHLH transcription factor DIMMED has been associated with the differentiation of peptidergic cells in Drosophila.Furthermore, we found that DIMM co-expression was a prevalent feature within single neuropeptide marker expression patterns.LEAP denotes Large cells that display Episodic release of Amidated Peptides.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The bHLH transcription factor DIMMED has been associated with the differentiation of peptidergic cells in Drosophila. However, whether all Drosophila peptidergic cells express DIMM, and the extent to which all DIMM cells are peptidergic, have not been determined. To address these issues, we have mapped DIMM expression in the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery in the late larval stage Drosophila. At 100 hr after egg-laying, DIMM immunosignals are largely congruent with a dimm-promoter reporter (c929-GAL4) and they present a stereotyped pattern of 306 CNS cells and 52 peripheral cells. We assigned positional values for all DIMM CNS cells with respect to reference gene expression patterns, or to patterns of secondary neuroblast lineages. We could assign provisional peptide identities to 68% of DIMM-expressing CNS cells (207/306) and to 73% of DIMM-expressing peripheral cells (38/52) using a panel of 24 markers for Drosophila neuropeptide genes. Furthermore, we found that DIMM co-expression was a prevalent feature within single neuropeptide marker expression patterns. Of the 24 CNS neuropeptide gene patterns we studied, six patterns are >90% DIMM-positive, while 16 of 22 patterns are >40% DIMM-positive. Thus most or all DIMM cells in Drosophila appear to be peptidergic, and many but not all peptidergic cells express DIMM. The co-incidence of DIMM-expression among peptidergic cells is best explained by a hypothesis that DIMM promotes a specific neurosecretory phenotype we term LEAP. LEAP denotes Large cells that display Episodic release of Amidated Peptides.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus