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Focal point theory models for dissecting dynamic duality problems of microbial infections.

Huang SH, Zhou W, Jong A - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2008)

Bottom Line: Three focal point (FP) theory-based game models (pure cooperative, dilemma, and pure conflict) are proposed for resolving those problems.Sym and Pat can be quantitated by measuring symbiotic index (SI), which is quantitative fitness for the symbiotic partnership, and pathogenic index (PI), which is quantitative damage to the symbiotic partnership, respectively.Symbiotic point (SP), which bears analogy to FP, is a function of SI and PI.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. shhuang@hsc.usc.edu

ABSTRACT
Extending along the dynamic continuum from conflict to cooperation, microbial infections always involve symbiosis (Sym) and pathogenesis (Pat). There exists a dynamic Sym-Pat duality (DSPD) in microbial infection that is the most fundamental problem in infectomics. DSPD is encoded by the genomes of both the microbes and their hosts. Three focal point (FP) theory-based game models (pure cooperative, dilemma, and pure conflict) are proposed for resolving those problems. Our health is associated with the dynamic interactions of three microbial communities (nonpathogenic microbiota (NP) (Cooperation), conditional pathogens (CP) (Dilemma), and unconditional pathogens (UP) (Conflict)) with the hosts at different health statuses. Sym and Pat can be quantitated by measuring symbiotic index (SI), which is quantitative fitness for the symbiotic partnership, and pathogenic index (PI), which is quantitative damage to the symbiotic partnership, respectively. Symbiotic point (SP), which bears analogy to FP, is a function of SI and PI. SP-converting and specific pathogen-targeting strategies can be used for the rational control of microbial infections.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The duality relationship between Sym (αi) and Pat (βi). A cooperative relationship (NP-NS: health and mutualism) (I) occurs between the host and the NP microbial community. Acompetitive relationship (CP-CS) (II and III) exists between the host and the CP microbial community. There are two types of competitions: better (II) and worse (III). An antagonistic relationship (UP-US) (IV) occurs between the host and the UP microbial community.
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fig4: The duality relationship between Sym (αi) and Pat (βi). A cooperative relationship (NP-NS: health and mutualism) (I) occurs between the host and the NP microbial community. Acompetitive relationship (CP-CS) (II and III) exists between the host and the CP microbial community. There are two types of competitions: better (II) and worse (III). An antagonistic relationship (UP-US) (IV) occurs between the host and the UP microbial community.

Mentions: Sym and Pat, the fundamental components of microbial infection,can be defined as a function SI(x)or PI(x*). SI(x) and PI(x*) are continuous functions ranging from 0 to 1 to admitdifferent degrees of Sym and Pat, respectively (see Figure 4). SI(x) = 0 and PI(x*) = 0 indicate that x and x* are perceived to bezero-symbiotic and zero-pathogenic, respectively. SI(x) = 1 and PI(x*) = 1 indicate that x and x* are perceived to be completelysymbiotic and completely pathogenic,respectively. If SI is close to or equal to 1, microbial infection is aphysiological process. It is now well accepted that mitochondria werederived from an endosymbiotic relationship with internalized proteobacteria,via a progressive transfer of genetic material [35]. This long symbioticrelationship reaches the maximum Sym value. The symbiotic nitrogen fixation processfor converting atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3)is essentially dependent on two partners: the host legume plant and bacteria belonging tothe family Rhizobiaceae [36]. This type of microbial infection is more typicallyassociated with a physiological process.


Focal point theory models for dissecting dynamic duality problems of microbial infections.

Huang SH, Zhou W, Jong A - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2008)

The duality relationship between Sym (αi) and Pat (βi). A cooperative relationship (NP-NS: health and mutualism) (I) occurs between the host and the NP microbial community. Acompetitive relationship (CP-CS) (II and III) exists between the host and the CP microbial community. There are two types of competitions: better (II) and worse (III). An antagonistic relationship (UP-US) (IV) occurs between the host and the UP microbial community.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2266975&req=5

fig4: The duality relationship between Sym (αi) and Pat (βi). A cooperative relationship (NP-NS: health and mutualism) (I) occurs between the host and the NP microbial community. Acompetitive relationship (CP-CS) (II and III) exists between the host and the CP microbial community. There are two types of competitions: better (II) and worse (III). An antagonistic relationship (UP-US) (IV) occurs between the host and the UP microbial community.
Mentions: Sym and Pat, the fundamental components of microbial infection,can be defined as a function SI(x)or PI(x*). SI(x) and PI(x*) are continuous functions ranging from 0 to 1 to admitdifferent degrees of Sym and Pat, respectively (see Figure 4). SI(x) = 0 and PI(x*) = 0 indicate that x and x* are perceived to bezero-symbiotic and zero-pathogenic, respectively. SI(x) = 1 and PI(x*) = 1 indicate that x and x* are perceived to be completelysymbiotic and completely pathogenic,respectively. If SI is close to or equal to 1, microbial infection is aphysiological process. It is now well accepted that mitochondria werederived from an endosymbiotic relationship with internalized proteobacteria,via a progressive transfer of genetic material [35]. This long symbioticrelationship reaches the maximum Sym value. The symbiotic nitrogen fixation processfor converting atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3)is essentially dependent on two partners: the host legume plant and bacteria belonging tothe family Rhizobiaceae [36]. This type of microbial infection is more typicallyassociated with a physiological process.

Bottom Line: Three focal point (FP) theory-based game models (pure cooperative, dilemma, and pure conflict) are proposed for resolving those problems.Sym and Pat can be quantitated by measuring symbiotic index (SI), which is quantitative fitness for the symbiotic partnership, and pathogenic index (PI), which is quantitative damage to the symbiotic partnership, respectively.Symbiotic point (SP), which bears analogy to FP, is a function of SI and PI.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. shhuang@hsc.usc.edu

ABSTRACT
Extending along the dynamic continuum from conflict to cooperation, microbial infections always involve symbiosis (Sym) and pathogenesis (Pat). There exists a dynamic Sym-Pat duality (DSPD) in microbial infection that is the most fundamental problem in infectomics. DSPD is encoded by the genomes of both the microbes and their hosts. Three focal point (FP) theory-based game models (pure cooperative, dilemma, and pure conflict) are proposed for resolving those problems. Our health is associated with the dynamic interactions of three microbial communities (nonpathogenic microbiota (NP) (Cooperation), conditional pathogens (CP) (Dilemma), and unconditional pathogens (UP) (Conflict)) with the hosts at different health statuses. Sym and Pat can be quantitated by measuring symbiotic index (SI), which is quantitative fitness for the symbiotic partnership, and pathogenic index (PI), which is quantitative damage to the symbiotic partnership, respectively. Symbiotic point (SP), which bears analogy to FP, is a function of SI and PI. SP-converting and specific pathogen-targeting strategies can be used for the rational control of microbial infections.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus