Focal point theory models for dissecting dynamic duality problems of microbial infections.
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Three focal point (FP) theory-based game models (pure cooperative, dilemma, and pure conflict) are proposed for resolving those problems.Sym and Pat can be quantitated by measuring symbiotic index (SI), which is quantitative fitness for the symbiotic partnership, and pathogenic index (PI), which is quantitative damage to the symbiotic partnership, respectively.Symbiotic point (SP), which bears analogy to FP, is a function of SI and PI.
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Affiliation: Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. shhuang@hsc.usc.edu
ABSTRACT
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Extending along the dynamic continuum from conflict to cooperation, microbial infections always involve symbiosis (Sym) and pathogenesis (Pat). There exists a dynamic Sym-Pat duality (DSPD) in microbial infection that is the most fundamental problem in infectomics. DSPD is encoded by the genomes of both the microbes and their hosts. Three focal point (FP) theory-based game models (pure cooperative, dilemma, and pure conflict) are proposed for resolving those problems. Our health is associated with the dynamic interactions of three microbial communities (nonpathogenic microbiota (NP) (Cooperation), conditional pathogens (CP) (Dilemma), and unconditional pathogens (UP) (Conflict)) with the hosts at different health statuses. Sym and Pat can be quantitated by measuring symbiotic index (SI), which is quantitative fitness for the symbiotic partnership, and pathogenic index (PI), which is quantitative damage to the symbiotic partnership, respectively. Symbiotic point (SP), which bears analogy to FP, is a function of SI and PI. SP-converting and specific pathogen-targeting strategies can be used for the rational control of microbial infections. Related in: MedlinePlus |
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Mentions: Extending along thedynamic continuum from conflict to cooperation, microbial infections alwaysinvolve symbiosis and pathogenesis, which are two fundamental components of thehost-microbe interactions (see Figure 2). There exists a dynamic Sym-Patduality in microbial infection, which is the most fundamental issue ofinfectomics [2]. DSPD is reflected in the genotypic and phenotypic infectomes,which are encoded by the genomes of both the microbes and their hosts [2]. Theopposition and unity of Sym and Pat are indispensable, and the academicviewpoint that the unity of opposites of Sym and Pat gives impetus to thedevelopment of microbial infection is considered as the core idea and radicalprinciple of the duality representations of microbial infections. In certaincircumstances and at a certain stage of the development of microbial infection,each of the two aspects of Sym and Pat will transform from antagonism intomutualism or from mutualism into antagonism. Sym and Pat can be quantitated bymeasuring symbiotic index (SI), which is quantitative fitness for the symbioticpartnership, and pathogenic index (PI), which is quantitative damage to thesymbiotic partnership, respectively. The most crucial studies are to identifyinfectomic signatures specific for SI and PI. The set of symbiotic orpathogenic parameters is defined as a function SI(x) or PI(x*). SI(x) and PI(x*) are continuous functions rangingfrom 0 to 1 to admit different degrees of Sym and Pat, respectively. SI(x) = 0 and PI(x*) = 0 indicate that xand x* are perceived to be zero-symbiotic and zero-pathogenic, respectively. SI(x) = 1 and PI(x*) = 1 indicate that xand x* are perceived to be completely symbiotic and completely pathogenic, respectively.Intermediate values of SI(x) and PI(x*) indicate that xand x* are perceived to be partially symbiotic and partially pathogenic,respectively. Symbioticpoints are used to determine the dynamicduality between Sym and Pat. SI and PI are interdependent parameters. Thesymbiotic point (SP) is a function of SI and PI:(1)SP=f(SI,PI).The focus of the dynamic duality research is to examinethe ability of SP to transform situations of potential conflict (UP-US and CP-CS) intosituations of cooperation (NP-NS). SPbears analogy to Schelling's focal point, which is any feature of such a gamethat provides a focus of convergence [16]. In the games with multiple Nashequilibria, one equilibrium usually stands out from the others (salient). Such an equilibrium is afocal point which can be easily recognized by all the players [12]. ThomasSchelling's Strategy of Conflict (1960) has been recognized as one of the most important works of game theory [11, 17]. There is no doubt that focal points play a central role in Schelling'sgame theory. Schelling has made a significant contribution to a reorientationof game theory. Understanding focal points is not only a key to improving gametheory but also a key to dissecting SPs. |
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Affiliation: Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. shhuang@hsc.usc.edu