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Focal point theory models for dissecting dynamic duality problems of microbial infections.

Huang SH, Zhou W, Jong A - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2008)

Bottom Line: Three focal point (FP) theory-based game models (pure cooperative, dilemma, and pure conflict) are proposed for resolving those problems.Sym and Pat can be quantitated by measuring symbiotic index (SI), which is quantitative fitness for the symbiotic partnership, and pathogenic index (PI), which is quantitative damage to the symbiotic partnership, respectively.Symbiotic point (SP), which bears analogy to FP, is a function of SI and PI.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. shhuang@hsc.usc.edu

ABSTRACT
Extending along the dynamic continuum from conflict to cooperation, microbial infections always involve symbiosis (Sym) and pathogenesis (Pat). There exists a dynamic Sym-Pat duality (DSPD) in microbial infection that is the most fundamental problem in infectomics. DSPD is encoded by the genomes of both the microbes and their hosts. Three focal point (FP) theory-based game models (pure cooperative, dilemma, and pure conflict) are proposed for resolving those problems. Our health is associated with the dynamic interactions of three microbial communities (nonpathogenic microbiota (NP) (Cooperation), conditional pathogens (CP) (Dilemma), and unconditional pathogens (UP) (Conflict)) with the hosts at different health statuses. Sym and Pat can be quantitated by measuring symbiotic index (SI), which is quantitative fitness for the symbiotic partnership, and pathogenic index (PI), which is quantitative damage to the symbiotic partnership, respectively. Symbiotic point (SP), which bears analogy to FP, is a function of SI and PI. SP-converting and specific pathogen-targeting strategies can be used for the rational control of microbial infections.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of interactions of three microbial communities(nonpathogenic (NP), conditional pathogenic (CP), and unconditional pathogenic(UP)) with the hosts at three different health statuses (nonsusceptibility(NS), conditional susceptibility (CS), and unconditional susceptibility (US)).
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fig1: Schematic representation of interactions of three microbial communities(nonpathogenic (NP), conditional pathogenic (CP), and unconditional pathogenic(UP)) with the hosts at three different health statuses (nonsusceptibility(NS), conditional susceptibility (CS), and unconditional susceptibility (US)).

Mentions: Our health is associated with the dynamic interactions ofthree microbial communities [2] (nonpathogenic microbiota (NP), conditionalpathogens (CP), and unconditional pathogens (UP)) with the hosts at three differenthealth statuses (nonsusceptibility (NS), conditional susceptibility (CS), andunconditional susceptibility (US)) (see Figure 1). NP is the major microbialcommunity which forms a healthy symbiotic “superorganism” with the hosts. Theecology and evolution of NP-NS interaction are essential and fundamental for health. Frombirth to death, we share a benign coexistence with a vast,complex, and dynamic consortium of microbes. Most of our microbial commensals residein our gastrointestinal (GI) track packed with up to 100 trillion (1014)microbes [1, 13]. The GI tract harbors a rich microbiota of >600 differentbacterial species. Some of these microorganisms have important healthfunctions. These include stimulating the immune system, protecting the hostfrom microbial invasion, and aiding digestion. The gut microbiota, which is essentialfor human homeostasis, is established rapidly after birth and remainsrelatively stable throughout the life [1]. The GI mucosa provides a protectiveinterface between the internal environment and the constant external challengefrom food-derived antigens and microbes. CP and UP are minor microbialcommunities that mainly contribute to the pathogenesis of microbial diseases. The distinction betweenthe commensal and the pathogen in the CP community can be blurred because theymay cause diseases under certain sub-health conditions of the hosts, or inimmunocompromised hosts. For example, pneumococcus, meningococcus, andHaemophilus bacteria regularly exist as part of the normal microbiota of thehost respiratory track and are mostly carried asymptomatically despite the factthat they can cause well-defined diseases [14, 15]. Microbes in the CP community dynamically evolve in twoopposite directions, which are toward either the NP (more cooperative ormutualistic) or UP (more pathogenic) microbial community. Microbes with highpathogenicity belong to the UP microbial community. The three microbialcommunities and three statuses of the hosts are subjected to dynamic reciprocalchanges driven by transfer of genetic materials.


Focal point theory models for dissecting dynamic duality problems of microbial infections.

Huang SH, Zhou W, Jong A - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2008)

Schematic representation of interactions of three microbial communities(nonpathogenic (NP), conditional pathogenic (CP), and unconditional pathogenic(UP)) with the hosts at three different health statuses (nonsusceptibility(NS), conditional susceptibility (CS), and unconditional susceptibility (US)).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2266975&req=5

fig1: Schematic representation of interactions of three microbial communities(nonpathogenic (NP), conditional pathogenic (CP), and unconditional pathogenic(UP)) with the hosts at three different health statuses (nonsusceptibility(NS), conditional susceptibility (CS), and unconditional susceptibility (US)).
Mentions: Our health is associated with the dynamic interactions ofthree microbial communities [2] (nonpathogenic microbiota (NP), conditionalpathogens (CP), and unconditional pathogens (UP)) with the hosts at three differenthealth statuses (nonsusceptibility (NS), conditional susceptibility (CS), andunconditional susceptibility (US)) (see Figure 1). NP is the major microbialcommunity which forms a healthy symbiotic “superorganism” with the hosts. Theecology and evolution of NP-NS interaction are essential and fundamental for health. Frombirth to death, we share a benign coexistence with a vast,complex, and dynamic consortium of microbes. Most of our microbial commensals residein our gastrointestinal (GI) track packed with up to 100 trillion (1014)microbes [1, 13]. The GI tract harbors a rich microbiota of >600 differentbacterial species. Some of these microorganisms have important healthfunctions. These include stimulating the immune system, protecting the hostfrom microbial invasion, and aiding digestion. The gut microbiota, which is essentialfor human homeostasis, is established rapidly after birth and remainsrelatively stable throughout the life [1]. The GI mucosa provides a protectiveinterface between the internal environment and the constant external challengefrom food-derived antigens and microbes. CP and UP are minor microbialcommunities that mainly contribute to the pathogenesis of microbial diseases. The distinction betweenthe commensal and the pathogen in the CP community can be blurred because theymay cause diseases under certain sub-health conditions of the hosts, or inimmunocompromised hosts. For example, pneumococcus, meningococcus, andHaemophilus bacteria regularly exist as part of the normal microbiota of thehost respiratory track and are mostly carried asymptomatically despite the factthat they can cause well-defined diseases [14, 15]. Microbes in the CP community dynamically evolve in twoopposite directions, which are toward either the NP (more cooperative ormutualistic) or UP (more pathogenic) microbial community. Microbes with highpathogenicity belong to the UP microbial community. The three microbialcommunities and three statuses of the hosts are subjected to dynamic reciprocalchanges driven by transfer of genetic materials.

Bottom Line: Three focal point (FP) theory-based game models (pure cooperative, dilemma, and pure conflict) are proposed for resolving those problems.Sym and Pat can be quantitated by measuring symbiotic index (SI), which is quantitative fitness for the symbiotic partnership, and pathogenic index (PI), which is quantitative damage to the symbiotic partnership, respectively.Symbiotic point (SP), which bears analogy to FP, is a function of SI and PI.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. shhuang@hsc.usc.edu

ABSTRACT
Extending along the dynamic continuum from conflict to cooperation, microbial infections always involve symbiosis (Sym) and pathogenesis (Pat). There exists a dynamic Sym-Pat duality (DSPD) in microbial infection that is the most fundamental problem in infectomics. DSPD is encoded by the genomes of both the microbes and their hosts. Three focal point (FP) theory-based game models (pure cooperative, dilemma, and pure conflict) are proposed for resolving those problems. Our health is associated with the dynamic interactions of three microbial communities (nonpathogenic microbiota (NP) (Cooperation), conditional pathogens (CP) (Dilemma), and unconditional pathogens (UP) (Conflict)) with the hosts at different health statuses. Sym and Pat can be quantitated by measuring symbiotic index (SI), which is quantitative fitness for the symbiotic partnership, and pathogenic index (PI), which is quantitative damage to the symbiotic partnership, respectively. Symbiotic point (SP), which bears analogy to FP, is a function of SI and PI. SP-converting and specific pathogen-targeting strategies can be used for the rational control of microbial infections.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus