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Prenatal stress and subsequent exposure to chronic mild stress influence dendritic spine density and morphology in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

Michelsen KA, van den Hove DL, Schmitz C, Segers O, Prickaerts J, Steinbusch HW - BMC Neurosci (2007)

Bottom Line: CMS had a negative effect on spine densities, particularly on spines of the mushroom type, which are considered to form stronger and more stable synapses than other spine types.PS alone did not affect spine densities, but had a negative effect on the ratio of mushroom spines.The observed changes may represent a morphological basis of PS- and CMS-related disturbances, and future studies in the field should not only consider total spine densities, but also separate between different spine types.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. k.michelsen@np.unimaas.nl

ABSTRACT

Background: Both prenatal stress (PS) and postnatal chronic mild stress (CMS) are associated with behavioral and mood disturbances in humans and rodents. The aim of this study was to reveal putative PS- and/or CMS-related changes in basal spine morphology and density of pyramidal neurons in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC).

Results: We show that rats exposed to PS and/or CMS display changes in the morphology and number of basal spines on pyramidal neurons in the mPFC. CMS had a negative effect on spine densities, particularly on spines of the mushroom type, which are considered to form stronger and more stable synapses than other spine types. PS alone did not affect spine densities, but had a negative effect on the ratio of mushroom spines. In addition, PS seemed to make rats less responsive to some of the negative effects of CMS, which supports the notion that PS represents a predictive adaptive response.

Conclusion: The observed changes may represent a morphological basis of PS- and CMS-related disturbances, and future studies in the field should not only consider total spine densities, but also separate between different spine types.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The densities (left column) and ratios (right column) of each spine type separately. The total density of spines, average length of thin spines and thin spine length per μm dendrite are shown at the bottom. Light columns = no PS; dark columns = PS. Error bars show SEM. § CMS effect (P < 0.05); ¤: PS effect (P < 0.05); *: P < 0.05 in Bonferroni post-hoc analysis. See also tables 1 and 2.
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Figure 3: The densities (left column) and ratios (right column) of each spine type separately. The total density of spines, average length of thin spines and thin spine length per μm dendrite are shown at the bottom. Light columns = no PS; dark columns = PS. Error bars show SEM. § CMS effect (P < 0.05); ¤: PS effect (P < 0.05); *: P < 0.05 in Bonferroni post-hoc analysis. See also tables 1 and 2.

Mentions: Quantitative confocal microscopy analysis of the dendritic spines, imaged with the help of an intracellularly injected fluorescent dye, revealed PS- and/or CMS-related changes in spine number and/or morphology (Fig. 2). The measured parameters were: 1) Spine density, i.e. spine number per μm dendrite, which was expressed separately for each spine type (thin, mushroom, stubby) and for all types together (total spine density); 2) spine ratio, i.e. the abundance of each spine type relative to the total spine density; 3) the average thin spine length; 4) a combination of thin spine density and average thin spine length, i.e. thin spine length per μm dendrite. The purpose of this combined measure was to detect putative subtle thin spine dynamics, such as shrinkage, complete degeneration, or transformation to another spine type, which might go unnoticed when considering measures 2 and 3 separately. The results of the statistical analysis of spine type densities and ratios are presented in Table 1 and Fig. 3, and of total spine density, thin spine length and thin spine length per μm dendrite in Table 2 and Fig. 3.


Prenatal stress and subsequent exposure to chronic mild stress influence dendritic spine density and morphology in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

Michelsen KA, van den Hove DL, Schmitz C, Segers O, Prickaerts J, Steinbusch HW - BMC Neurosci (2007)

The densities (left column) and ratios (right column) of each spine type separately. The total density of spines, average length of thin spines and thin spine length per μm dendrite are shown at the bottom. Light columns = no PS; dark columns = PS. Error bars show SEM. § CMS effect (P < 0.05); ¤: PS effect (P < 0.05); *: P < 0.05 in Bonferroni post-hoc analysis. See also tables 1 and 2.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2266759&req=5

Figure 3: The densities (left column) and ratios (right column) of each spine type separately. The total density of spines, average length of thin spines and thin spine length per μm dendrite are shown at the bottom. Light columns = no PS; dark columns = PS. Error bars show SEM. § CMS effect (P < 0.05); ¤: PS effect (P < 0.05); *: P < 0.05 in Bonferroni post-hoc analysis. See also tables 1 and 2.
Mentions: Quantitative confocal microscopy analysis of the dendritic spines, imaged with the help of an intracellularly injected fluorescent dye, revealed PS- and/or CMS-related changes in spine number and/or morphology (Fig. 2). The measured parameters were: 1) Spine density, i.e. spine number per μm dendrite, which was expressed separately for each spine type (thin, mushroom, stubby) and for all types together (total spine density); 2) spine ratio, i.e. the abundance of each spine type relative to the total spine density; 3) the average thin spine length; 4) a combination of thin spine density and average thin spine length, i.e. thin spine length per μm dendrite. The purpose of this combined measure was to detect putative subtle thin spine dynamics, such as shrinkage, complete degeneration, or transformation to another spine type, which might go unnoticed when considering measures 2 and 3 separately. The results of the statistical analysis of spine type densities and ratios are presented in Table 1 and Fig. 3, and of total spine density, thin spine length and thin spine length per μm dendrite in Table 2 and Fig. 3.

Bottom Line: CMS had a negative effect on spine densities, particularly on spines of the mushroom type, which are considered to form stronger and more stable synapses than other spine types.PS alone did not affect spine densities, but had a negative effect on the ratio of mushroom spines.The observed changes may represent a morphological basis of PS- and CMS-related disturbances, and future studies in the field should not only consider total spine densities, but also separate between different spine types.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. k.michelsen@np.unimaas.nl

ABSTRACT

Background: Both prenatal stress (PS) and postnatal chronic mild stress (CMS) are associated with behavioral and mood disturbances in humans and rodents. The aim of this study was to reveal putative PS- and/or CMS-related changes in basal spine morphology and density of pyramidal neurons in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC).

Results: We show that rats exposed to PS and/or CMS display changes in the morphology and number of basal spines on pyramidal neurons in the mPFC. CMS had a negative effect on spine densities, particularly on spines of the mushroom type, which are considered to form stronger and more stable synapses than other spine types. PS alone did not affect spine densities, but had a negative effect on the ratio of mushroom spines. In addition, PS seemed to make rats less responsive to some of the negative effects of CMS, which supports the notion that PS represents a predictive adaptive response.

Conclusion: The observed changes may represent a morphological basis of PS- and CMS-related disturbances, and future studies in the field should not only consider total spine densities, but also separate between different spine types.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus