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Adherent self-renewable human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell line: functional engraftment in experimental stroke model.

Daadi MM, Maag AL, Steinberg GK - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: These hNSCs did not express the pluripotency markers Oct4 or Nanog, nor did they express markers for the mesoderm or endoderm lineages.Importantly, they exhibited no chromosome abnormalities and did not form tumors after implantation into rat ischemic brains and into naïve nude rat brains and flanks.Furthermore, hNSCs isolated under these conditions migrated toward the ischemia-injured adult brain parenchyma and improved the independent use of the stroke-impaired forelimb two months post-transplantation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery and Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA. mdaadi@stanford.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer a virtually unlimited source of neural cells for structural repair in neurological disorders, such as stroke. Neural cells can be derived from hESCs either by direct enrichment, or by isolating specific growth factor-responsive and expandable populations of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Studies have indicated that the direct enrichment method generates a heterogeneous population of cells that may contain residual undifferentiated stem cells that could lead to tumor formation in vivo.

Methods/principal findings: We isolated an expandable and homogenous population of hNSCs (named SD56) from hESCs using a defined media supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and leukemia inhibitory growth factor (LIF). These hNSCs grew as an adherent monolayer culture. They were fully neuralized and uniformly expressed molecular features of NSCs, including nestin, vimentin and radial glial markers. These hNSCs did not express the pluripotency markers Oct4 or Nanog, nor did they express markers for the mesoderm or endoderm lineages. The self-renewal property of the hNSCs was characterized by a predominant symmetrical mode of cell division. The SD56 hNSCs differentiated into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes throughout multiple passages in vitro, as well as after transplantation. Together, these criteria confirm the definitive NSC identity of the SD56 cell line. Importantly, they exhibited no chromosome abnormalities and did not form tumors after implantation into rat ischemic brains and into naïve nude rat brains and flanks. Furthermore, hNSCs isolated under these conditions migrated toward the ischemia-injured adult brain parenchyma and improved the independent use of the stroke-impaired forelimb two months post-transplantation.

Conclusions/significance: The SD56 human neural stem cells derived under the reported conditions are stable, do not form tumors in vivo and enable functional recovery after stroke. These properties indicate that this hNSC line may offer a renewable, homogenous source of neural cells that will be valuable for basic and translational research.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Dispersion, engraftment and differentiation of the hNSCs in stroke-lesioned animals.(A) Schematic drawing of a frontal section through the striatum illustrating the dispersion of grafted hNSCs in the focal ischemia-lesioned parenchyma (shaded area). (B, C) Photos show frontal sections through the graft in the striatum immunostained with the human specific antibodies: anti-hNuc (green in B & C) and anti-GluT1 (red, B & C) showing blood vessels and dispersed hNSCs in the graft zone. C: higher magnification of the inset in B. (D–I) Photos taken from frontal sections through the graft in the striatum double immunoprocessed for cell proliferation and neural lineage markers. (D) Note the endogenous Ki67+ cells (red cells, arrow) in the stroke damaged area and the hNuc+ (green)/Ki67- grafted hNSCs (arrowheads). (E) Examples of grafted SD56 hNSCs showing co-expression of hNuc (green) and nestin (red). (F) Confocal 3D reconstructed orthogonal images of the hNuc+(green)/DCX+(red) NSCs (arrowheads) viewed in the x-z plan on the top and y-z plan on the right. (G) Examples show the majority of grafted NSC progeny co-expressing hNuc (red) and the neuronal marker TuJ1 (green). Grafted NSCs rarely differentiate into GFAP+ astrocytes (H). In I, rare example of grafted NSC progeny becoming an oligodendrocyte identified by the expression of CNPase (green). Grafted NSCs expressed the GABAergic marker GAD65/67 (J) and rarely expressed glutamate (K). (Abbreviations: Cx: cortex, Str: striatum). Bars: (B, C) 100 µm; (D, F) 20 µm; (E, G–K) 10 µm.
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pone-0001644-g003: Dispersion, engraftment and differentiation of the hNSCs in stroke-lesioned animals.(A) Schematic drawing of a frontal section through the striatum illustrating the dispersion of grafted hNSCs in the focal ischemia-lesioned parenchyma (shaded area). (B, C) Photos show frontal sections through the graft in the striatum immunostained with the human specific antibodies: anti-hNuc (green in B & C) and anti-GluT1 (red, B & C) showing blood vessels and dispersed hNSCs in the graft zone. C: higher magnification of the inset in B. (D–I) Photos taken from frontal sections through the graft in the striatum double immunoprocessed for cell proliferation and neural lineage markers. (D) Note the endogenous Ki67+ cells (red cells, arrow) in the stroke damaged area and the hNuc+ (green)/Ki67- grafted hNSCs (arrowheads). (E) Examples of grafted SD56 hNSCs showing co-expression of hNuc (green) and nestin (red). (F) Confocal 3D reconstructed orthogonal images of the hNuc+(green)/DCX+(red) NSCs (arrowheads) viewed in the x-z plan on the top and y-z plan on the right. (G) Examples show the majority of grafted NSC progeny co-expressing hNuc (red) and the neuronal marker TuJ1 (green). Grafted NSCs rarely differentiate into GFAP+ astrocytes (H). In I, rare example of grafted NSC progeny becoming an oligodendrocyte identified by the expression of CNPase (green). Grafted NSCs expressed the GABAergic marker GAD65/67 (J) and rarely expressed glutamate (K). (Abbreviations: Cx: cortex, Str: striatum). Bars: (B, C) 100 µm; (D, F) 20 µm; (E, G–K) 10 µm.

Mentions: To investigate the survival and functional engraftment in an injury environment, hNSCs (4×105) were transplanted into the ischemic boundary zone in the rat striatum one week after the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed. Animals were euthanized two months later and the brains processed for histo-pathology and immunocytochemistry. Grafted SD56 hNSCs, identified with hNuc, demonstrated a 37.0±15.8% survival rate and a remarkable dispersion toward the stroke-damaged tissue with no sign of overgrowth or tumorigenesis. The majority of grafted cells (61.2±4.7%) migrated at least 200 µm away from the injection site and penetrated an average distance of 806.4±49.3 µm into the stroke-damaged tissue (Figure 3A–C). Immunostaining with the blood vessel marker, GluT1, revealed dilated vessels in the infarcted striatum and a close association between vessels and the grafted hNSCs (Figure 3B, 3C). The grafted cells rarely expressed the proliferation marker Ki67 (Figure 3D), 29.8±4.4% expressed nestin (Figure 3E), 6.5±0.9% expressed doublecortin (DCX) and 60.8±8.1% were TuJ1+ (Figure 3F, G). Grafted cells rarely co-expressed the astroglial marker GFAP (Figure 3H) or differentiated into CNPase-expressing oligodendrocytes (Figure 3I). Immunostaining for GAD demonstrated that 25.1±2.3% of grafted hNSCs differentiated into GABAergic neurons while less than 2% were positive for glutamate (Figure 3J, K).


Adherent self-renewable human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell line: functional engraftment in experimental stroke model.

Daadi MM, Maag AL, Steinberg GK - PLoS ONE (2008)

Dispersion, engraftment and differentiation of the hNSCs in stroke-lesioned animals.(A) Schematic drawing of a frontal section through the striatum illustrating the dispersion of grafted hNSCs in the focal ischemia-lesioned parenchyma (shaded area). (B, C) Photos show frontal sections through the graft in the striatum immunostained with the human specific antibodies: anti-hNuc (green in B & C) and anti-GluT1 (red, B & C) showing blood vessels and dispersed hNSCs in the graft zone. C: higher magnification of the inset in B. (D–I) Photos taken from frontal sections through the graft in the striatum double immunoprocessed for cell proliferation and neural lineage markers. (D) Note the endogenous Ki67+ cells (red cells, arrow) in the stroke damaged area and the hNuc+ (green)/Ki67- grafted hNSCs (arrowheads). (E) Examples of grafted SD56 hNSCs showing co-expression of hNuc (green) and nestin (red). (F) Confocal 3D reconstructed orthogonal images of the hNuc+(green)/DCX+(red) NSCs (arrowheads) viewed in the x-z plan on the top and y-z plan on the right. (G) Examples show the majority of grafted NSC progeny co-expressing hNuc (red) and the neuronal marker TuJ1 (green). Grafted NSCs rarely differentiate into GFAP+ astrocytes (H). In I, rare example of grafted NSC progeny becoming an oligodendrocyte identified by the expression of CNPase (green). Grafted NSCs expressed the GABAergic marker GAD65/67 (J) and rarely expressed glutamate (K). (Abbreviations: Cx: cortex, Str: striatum). Bars: (B, C) 100 µm; (D, F) 20 µm; (E, G–K) 10 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2238795&req=5

pone-0001644-g003: Dispersion, engraftment and differentiation of the hNSCs in stroke-lesioned animals.(A) Schematic drawing of a frontal section through the striatum illustrating the dispersion of grafted hNSCs in the focal ischemia-lesioned parenchyma (shaded area). (B, C) Photos show frontal sections through the graft in the striatum immunostained with the human specific antibodies: anti-hNuc (green in B & C) and anti-GluT1 (red, B & C) showing blood vessels and dispersed hNSCs in the graft zone. C: higher magnification of the inset in B. (D–I) Photos taken from frontal sections through the graft in the striatum double immunoprocessed for cell proliferation and neural lineage markers. (D) Note the endogenous Ki67+ cells (red cells, arrow) in the stroke damaged area and the hNuc+ (green)/Ki67- grafted hNSCs (arrowheads). (E) Examples of grafted SD56 hNSCs showing co-expression of hNuc (green) and nestin (red). (F) Confocal 3D reconstructed orthogonal images of the hNuc+(green)/DCX+(red) NSCs (arrowheads) viewed in the x-z plan on the top and y-z plan on the right. (G) Examples show the majority of grafted NSC progeny co-expressing hNuc (red) and the neuronal marker TuJ1 (green). Grafted NSCs rarely differentiate into GFAP+ astrocytes (H). In I, rare example of grafted NSC progeny becoming an oligodendrocyte identified by the expression of CNPase (green). Grafted NSCs expressed the GABAergic marker GAD65/67 (J) and rarely expressed glutamate (K). (Abbreviations: Cx: cortex, Str: striatum). Bars: (B, C) 100 µm; (D, F) 20 µm; (E, G–K) 10 µm.
Mentions: To investigate the survival and functional engraftment in an injury environment, hNSCs (4×105) were transplanted into the ischemic boundary zone in the rat striatum one week after the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed. Animals were euthanized two months later and the brains processed for histo-pathology and immunocytochemistry. Grafted SD56 hNSCs, identified with hNuc, demonstrated a 37.0±15.8% survival rate and a remarkable dispersion toward the stroke-damaged tissue with no sign of overgrowth or tumorigenesis. The majority of grafted cells (61.2±4.7%) migrated at least 200 µm away from the injection site and penetrated an average distance of 806.4±49.3 µm into the stroke-damaged tissue (Figure 3A–C). Immunostaining with the blood vessel marker, GluT1, revealed dilated vessels in the infarcted striatum and a close association between vessels and the grafted hNSCs (Figure 3B, 3C). The grafted cells rarely expressed the proliferation marker Ki67 (Figure 3D), 29.8±4.4% expressed nestin (Figure 3E), 6.5±0.9% expressed doublecortin (DCX) and 60.8±8.1% were TuJ1+ (Figure 3F, G). Grafted cells rarely co-expressed the astroglial marker GFAP (Figure 3H) or differentiated into CNPase-expressing oligodendrocytes (Figure 3I). Immunostaining for GAD demonstrated that 25.1±2.3% of grafted hNSCs differentiated into GABAergic neurons while less than 2% were positive for glutamate (Figure 3J, K).

Bottom Line: These hNSCs did not express the pluripotency markers Oct4 or Nanog, nor did they express markers for the mesoderm or endoderm lineages.Importantly, they exhibited no chromosome abnormalities and did not form tumors after implantation into rat ischemic brains and into naïve nude rat brains and flanks.Furthermore, hNSCs isolated under these conditions migrated toward the ischemia-injured adult brain parenchyma and improved the independent use of the stroke-impaired forelimb two months post-transplantation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery and Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA. mdaadi@stanford.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer a virtually unlimited source of neural cells for structural repair in neurological disorders, such as stroke. Neural cells can be derived from hESCs either by direct enrichment, or by isolating specific growth factor-responsive and expandable populations of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Studies have indicated that the direct enrichment method generates a heterogeneous population of cells that may contain residual undifferentiated stem cells that could lead to tumor formation in vivo.

Methods/principal findings: We isolated an expandable and homogenous population of hNSCs (named SD56) from hESCs using a defined media supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and leukemia inhibitory growth factor (LIF). These hNSCs grew as an adherent monolayer culture. They were fully neuralized and uniformly expressed molecular features of NSCs, including nestin, vimentin and radial glial markers. These hNSCs did not express the pluripotency markers Oct4 or Nanog, nor did they express markers for the mesoderm or endoderm lineages. The self-renewal property of the hNSCs was characterized by a predominant symmetrical mode of cell division. The SD56 hNSCs differentiated into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes throughout multiple passages in vitro, as well as after transplantation. Together, these criteria confirm the definitive NSC identity of the SD56 cell line. Importantly, they exhibited no chromosome abnormalities and did not form tumors after implantation into rat ischemic brains and into naïve nude rat brains and flanks. Furthermore, hNSCs isolated under these conditions migrated toward the ischemia-injured adult brain parenchyma and improved the independent use of the stroke-impaired forelimb two months post-transplantation.

Conclusions/significance: The SD56 human neural stem cells derived under the reported conditions are stable, do not form tumors in vivo and enable functional recovery after stroke. These properties indicate that this hNSC line may offer a renewable, homogenous source of neural cells that will be valuable for basic and translational research.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus