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Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice.

Petróczi A, Naughton DP, Mazanov J, Holloway A, Bingham J - J Int Soc Sports Nutr (2007)

Bottom Line: The best associations were for the ability to train longer with creatine (reported by 73.9%, chi2 = 49.14, p < .001; varphi = .307, p < .001), and maintaining strength with creatine (reported by 62.6%, chi2 = 97.08, p < .001; varphi = .432, p < .001) and whey protein (reported by 56.1%, chi2 = 97.82, p < .001; varphi = .434, p < .001).These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use.There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, KT1 2EE, UK. a.petroczi@kingston.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Athletes are expected to consider multiple factors when making informed decision about nutritional supplement use. Besides rules, regulations and potential health hazards, the efficacy of different nutritional supplements in performance enhancement is a key issue. The aim of this paper was to find evidence for informed decision making by investigating the relationship between specific performance-related reasons for supplement use and the reported use of nutritional supplements.

Methods: The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874) were re-analysed using association [chi2] and 'strength of association' tests [varphi] to show the proportion of informed choices and to unveil incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives.

Results: Participants (n = 520) reported supplement use in the pattern of: vitamin C (70.4%), creatine (36.1%), whey protein (30.6%), iron (29.8%), caffeine (23.8%), and ginseng (8.3%) for the following reasons: strength maintenance (38.1%), doctors' advice (24.2%), enhancing endurance (20.0%), ability to train longer (13.3%), and provided by the governing body (3.8%). Of thirty possible associations between the above supplements and reasons, 11 were predictable from literature precedents and only 8 were evidenced and these were not strong (varphi < .7). The best associations were for the ability to train longer with creatine (reported by 73.9%, chi2 = 49.14, p < .001; varphi = .307, p < .001), and maintaining strength with creatine (reported by 62.6%, chi2 = 97.08, p < .001; varphi = .432, p < .001) and whey protein (reported by 56.1%, chi2 = 97.82, p < .001; varphi = .434, p < .001).

Conclusion: This study provided a platform for assessing congruence between athletes' reasons for supplement use and their actual use. These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use. There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements.

No MeSH data available.


Supplements used and performance-related reasons for use by respondents who take supplements (n = 520), expressed as percentage of the sample. Respondents could select more than one reason or supplement thus the accumulated % exceeds 100%.
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Figure 1: Supplements used and performance-related reasons for use by respondents who take supplements (n = 520), expressed as percentage of the sample. Respondents could select more than one reason or supplement thus the accumulated % exceeds 100%.

Mentions: From the original UK Sport "Drug Free Sport" survey, answers given on two independent but related questions were analysed [18]. These questions are: 'Which supplement do you use or have you used?' and 'Why do you use supplements?', preceded by a control question regarding supplement use in general. Closed response options (a list of supplements and a list of reasons) were provided and athletes were instructed to select as many as apply and answers were coded: yes = 1, no = 0. At the end of each list, an 'other' option was offered but owing to the wide range of supplement reported, no attempt was made to categorise these answers and inclusion into the analyses. The six supplements and five parameters of performance enhancement are listed in Figure 1. Owing to inconsistencies among sport governing bodies and the lack of accurate information on which supplements are provided, if any, the 'governing body provides' as a reason for supplement use was excluded from further analysis. Answers given to the general control question and the two probing questions provided reassurance of the validity of the data (i.e. those who claimed to use supplements also answered the two questions exploring what supplements and why were habitually used).


Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice.

Petróczi A, Naughton DP, Mazanov J, Holloway A, Bingham J - J Int Soc Sports Nutr (2007)

Supplements used and performance-related reasons for use by respondents who take supplements (n = 520), expressed as percentage of the sample. Respondents could select more than one reason or supplement thus the accumulated % exceeds 100%.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2214727&req=5

Figure 1: Supplements used and performance-related reasons for use by respondents who take supplements (n = 520), expressed as percentage of the sample. Respondents could select more than one reason or supplement thus the accumulated % exceeds 100%.
Mentions: From the original UK Sport "Drug Free Sport" survey, answers given on two independent but related questions were analysed [18]. These questions are: 'Which supplement do you use or have you used?' and 'Why do you use supplements?', preceded by a control question regarding supplement use in general. Closed response options (a list of supplements and a list of reasons) were provided and athletes were instructed to select as many as apply and answers were coded: yes = 1, no = 0. At the end of each list, an 'other' option was offered but owing to the wide range of supplement reported, no attempt was made to categorise these answers and inclusion into the analyses. The six supplements and five parameters of performance enhancement are listed in Figure 1. Owing to inconsistencies among sport governing bodies and the lack of accurate information on which supplements are provided, if any, the 'governing body provides' as a reason for supplement use was excluded from further analysis. Answers given to the general control question and the two probing questions provided reassurance of the validity of the data (i.e. those who claimed to use supplements also answered the two questions exploring what supplements and why were habitually used).

Bottom Line: The best associations were for the ability to train longer with creatine (reported by 73.9%, chi2 = 49.14, p < .001; varphi = .307, p < .001), and maintaining strength with creatine (reported by 62.6%, chi2 = 97.08, p < .001; varphi = .432, p < .001) and whey protein (reported by 56.1%, chi2 = 97.82, p < .001; varphi = .434, p < .001).These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use.There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, KT1 2EE, UK. a.petroczi@kingston.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Athletes are expected to consider multiple factors when making informed decision about nutritional supplement use. Besides rules, regulations and potential health hazards, the efficacy of different nutritional supplements in performance enhancement is a key issue. The aim of this paper was to find evidence for informed decision making by investigating the relationship between specific performance-related reasons for supplement use and the reported use of nutritional supplements.

Methods: The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874) were re-analysed using association [chi2] and 'strength of association' tests [varphi] to show the proportion of informed choices and to unveil incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives.

Results: Participants (n = 520) reported supplement use in the pattern of: vitamin C (70.4%), creatine (36.1%), whey protein (30.6%), iron (29.8%), caffeine (23.8%), and ginseng (8.3%) for the following reasons: strength maintenance (38.1%), doctors' advice (24.2%), enhancing endurance (20.0%), ability to train longer (13.3%), and provided by the governing body (3.8%). Of thirty possible associations between the above supplements and reasons, 11 were predictable from literature precedents and only 8 were evidenced and these were not strong (varphi < .7). The best associations were for the ability to train longer with creatine (reported by 73.9%, chi2 = 49.14, p < .001; varphi = .307, p < .001), and maintaining strength with creatine (reported by 62.6%, chi2 = 97.08, p < .001; varphi = .432, p < .001) and whey protein (reported by 56.1%, chi2 = 97.82, p < .001; varphi = .434, p < .001).

Conclusion: This study provided a platform for assessing congruence between athletes' reasons for supplement use and their actual use. These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use. There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements.

No MeSH data available.