Limits...
Localization of HIV-1 Vpr to the nuclear envelope: impact on Vpr functions and virus replication in macrophages.

Jacquot G, Le Rouzic E, David A, Mazzolini J, Bouchet J, Bouaziz S, Niedergang F, Pancino G, Benichou S - Retrovirology (2007)

Bottom Line: In order to define the functional role of Vpr localization at the NE, we have characterized a set of single-point Vpr mutants, and selected two new mutants with substitutions within the first alpha-helix of the protein, Vpr-L23F and Vpr-K27M, that failed to associate with hCG1, but were still able to interact with other known relevant host partners of Vpr.In mammalian cells, these mutants failed to localize at the NE resulting in a diffuse nucleocytoplasmic distribution both in HeLa cells and in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages.These results indicate that the targeting of Vpr to the nuclear pore complex may constitute an early step toward Vpr-induced G2-arrest and subsequent apoptosis; they also suggest that Vpr targeting to the nuclear pore complex is not absolutely required, but can improve HIV-1 replication in macrophages.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France. jacquot@cochin.inserm.fr

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV-1 Vpr is a dynamic protein that primarily localizes in the nucleus, but a significant fraction is concentrated at the nuclear envelope (NE), supporting an interaction between Vpr and components of the nuclear pore complex, including the nucleoporin hCG1. In the present study, we have explored the contribution of Vpr accumulation at the NE to the Vpr functions, including G2-arrest and pro-apoptotic activities, and virus replication in primary macrophages.

Results: In order to define the functional role of Vpr localization at the NE, we have characterized a set of single-point Vpr mutants, and selected two new mutants with substitutions within the first alpha-helix of the protein, Vpr-L23F and Vpr-K27M, that failed to associate with hCG1, but were still able to interact with other known relevant host partners of Vpr. In mammalian cells, these mutants failed to localize at the NE resulting in a diffuse nucleocytoplasmic distribution both in HeLa cells and in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. Other mutants with substitutions in the first alpha-helix (Vpr-A30L and Vpr-F34I) were similarly distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm, demonstrating that this helix contains the determinants required for localization of Vpr at the NE. All these mutations also impaired the Vpr-mediated G2-arrest of the cell cycle and the subsequent cell death induction, indicating a functional link between these activities and the Vpr accumulation at the NE. However, this localization is not sufficient, since mutations within the C-terminal basic region of Vpr (Vpr-R80A and Vpr-R90K), disrupted the G2-arrest and apoptotic activities without altering NE localization. Finally, the replication of the Vpr-L23F and Vpr-K27M hCG1-binding deficient mutant viruses was also affected in primary macrophages from some but not all donors.

Conclusion: These results indicate that the targeting of Vpr to the nuclear pore complex may constitute an early step toward Vpr-induced G2-arrest and subsequent apoptosis; they also suggest that Vpr targeting to the nuclear pore complex is not absolutely required, but can improve HIV-1 replication in macrophages.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Subcellular distribution of the Vpr mutants. A) Colocalization of Vpr and hCG1 at the NE. HeLa cells co-expressing Vpr-GFP (middle row) and Myc-hCG1 (left row) fusion proteins were permeabilized with digitonin, fixed, and subsequently stained with an anti-Myc monoclonal antibody. B and C) Localization of wt and mutated Vpr-GFP fusions. HeLa cells expressing either GFP, wt Vpr-GFP, or the indicated Vpr-GFP mutants were fixed and directly examined. Cells were analyzed by epifluorescence microscopy, and images were acquired using a CCD camera. Scale bar, 10 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2211753&req=5

Figure 3: Subcellular distribution of the Vpr mutants. A) Colocalization of Vpr and hCG1 at the NE. HeLa cells co-expressing Vpr-GFP (middle row) and Myc-hCG1 (left row) fusion proteins were permeabilized with digitonin, fixed, and subsequently stained with an anti-Myc monoclonal antibody. B and C) Localization of wt and mutated Vpr-GFP fusions. HeLa cells expressing either GFP, wt Vpr-GFP, or the indicated Vpr-GFP mutants were fixed and directly examined. Cells were analyzed by epifluorescence microscopy, and images were acquired using a CCD camera. Scale bar, 10 μm.

Mentions: Since HIV-1 Vpr localizes predominantly in the nucleus but also concentrates at the NE as a nuclear rim staining (Fig. 3A, middle panel) where it co-localizes with the nucleoporin hCG1 (left panel) [28], the cellular distribution of the two hCG1-binding deficient Vpr mutants was first analyzed. In contrast to the wt Vpr-GFP fusion, both Vpr-L23F and -K27M equally distributed between the cytoplasm and the nucleus (Fig. 3B), but they were excluded from the nucleolus. When expressed as HA-tagged proteins, these Vpr mutants similarly co-distributed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, whereas wt HA-Vpr was concentrated into the nucleus and at the NE (data not shown). These data support that mutations of Vpr which alter its binding to hCG1 also impair its accumulation at the NE.


Localization of HIV-1 Vpr to the nuclear envelope: impact on Vpr functions and virus replication in macrophages.

Jacquot G, Le Rouzic E, David A, Mazzolini J, Bouchet J, Bouaziz S, Niedergang F, Pancino G, Benichou S - Retrovirology (2007)

Subcellular distribution of the Vpr mutants. A) Colocalization of Vpr and hCG1 at the NE. HeLa cells co-expressing Vpr-GFP (middle row) and Myc-hCG1 (left row) fusion proteins were permeabilized with digitonin, fixed, and subsequently stained with an anti-Myc monoclonal antibody. B and C) Localization of wt and mutated Vpr-GFP fusions. HeLa cells expressing either GFP, wt Vpr-GFP, or the indicated Vpr-GFP mutants were fixed and directly examined. Cells were analyzed by epifluorescence microscopy, and images were acquired using a CCD camera. Scale bar, 10 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2211753&req=5

Figure 3: Subcellular distribution of the Vpr mutants. A) Colocalization of Vpr and hCG1 at the NE. HeLa cells co-expressing Vpr-GFP (middle row) and Myc-hCG1 (left row) fusion proteins were permeabilized with digitonin, fixed, and subsequently stained with an anti-Myc monoclonal antibody. B and C) Localization of wt and mutated Vpr-GFP fusions. HeLa cells expressing either GFP, wt Vpr-GFP, or the indicated Vpr-GFP mutants were fixed and directly examined. Cells were analyzed by epifluorescence microscopy, and images were acquired using a CCD camera. Scale bar, 10 μm.
Mentions: Since HIV-1 Vpr localizes predominantly in the nucleus but also concentrates at the NE as a nuclear rim staining (Fig. 3A, middle panel) where it co-localizes with the nucleoporin hCG1 (left panel) [28], the cellular distribution of the two hCG1-binding deficient Vpr mutants was first analyzed. In contrast to the wt Vpr-GFP fusion, both Vpr-L23F and -K27M equally distributed between the cytoplasm and the nucleus (Fig. 3B), but they were excluded from the nucleolus. When expressed as HA-tagged proteins, these Vpr mutants similarly co-distributed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, whereas wt HA-Vpr was concentrated into the nucleus and at the NE (data not shown). These data support that mutations of Vpr which alter its binding to hCG1 also impair its accumulation at the NE.

Bottom Line: In order to define the functional role of Vpr localization at the NE, we have characterized a set of single-point Vpr mutants, and selected two new mutants with substitutions within the first alpha-helix of the protein, Vpr-L23F and Vpr-K27M, that failed to associate with hCG1, but were still able to interact with other known relevant host partners of Vpr.In mammalian cells, these mutants failed to localize at the NE resulting in a diffuse nucleocytoplasmic distribution both in HeLa cells and in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages.These results indicate that the targeting of Vpr to the nuclear pore complex may constitute an early step toward Vpr-induced G2-arrest and subsequent apoptosis; they also suggest that Vpr targeting to the nuclear pore complex is not absolutely required, but can improve HIV-1 replication in macrophages.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France. jacquot@cochin.inserm.fr

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV-1 Vpr is a dynamic protein that primarily localizes in the nucleus, but a significant fraction is concentrated at the nuclear envelope (NE), supporting an interaction between Vpr and components of the nuclear pore complex, including the nucleoporin hCG1. In the present study, we have explored the contribution of Vpr accumulation at the NE to the Vpr functions, including G2-arrest and pro-apoptotic activities, and virus replication in primary macrophages.

Results: In order to define the functional role of Vpr localization at the NE, we have characterized a set of single-point Vpr mutants, and selected two new mutants with substitutions within the first alpha-helix of the protein, Vpr-L23F and Vpr-K27M, that failed to associate with hCG1, but were still able to interact with other known relevant host partners of Vpr. In mammalian cells, these mutants failed to localize at the NE resulting in a diffuse nucleocytoplasmic distribution both in HeLa cells and in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. Other mutants with substitutions in the first alpha-helix (Vpr-A30L and Vpr-F34I) were similarly distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm, demonstrating that this helix contains the determinants required for localization of Vpr at the NE. All these mutations also impaired the Vpr-mediated G2-arrest of the cell cycle and the subsequent cell death induction, indicating a functional link between these activities and the Vpr accumulation at the NE. However, this localization is not sufficient, since mutations within the C-terminal basic region of Vpr (Vpr-R80A and Vpr-R90K), disrupted the G2-arrest and apoptotic activities without altering NE localization. Finally, the replication of the Vpr-L23F and Vpr-K27M hCG1-binding deficient mutant viruses was also affected in primary macrophages from some but not all donors.

Conclusion: These results indicate that the targeting of Vpr to the nuclear pore complex may constitute an early step toward Vpr-induced G2-arrest and subsequent apoptosis; they also suggest that Vpr targeting to the nuclear pore complex is not absolutely required, but can improve HIV-1 replication in macrophages.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus