Limits...
Phylogenetic analysis of Shiga toxin 1 and Shiga toxin 2 genes associated with disease outbreaks.

Lee JE, Reed J, Shields MS, Spiegel KM, Farrell LD, Sheridan PP - BMC Microbiol. (2007)

Bottom Line: The analysis confirmed the Stx1 and Stx2 divergence, and showed that there is generally more sequence variation among stx2 genes than stx1.The stx1 and stx2 genes used in this phylogenetic study show sequence conservation with no significant divergence with respect to place or time.These data could indicate that Shiga toxins are experiencing purifying selection.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, 921 South 8th Ave,, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007, USA. james.e.lee@amedd.army.mil

ABSTRACT

Background: Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2) are bacteriophage-encoded proteins that have been associated with hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and other severe disease conditions. Stx1 and Stx2 are genetically and immunologically distinct but share the same compound toxin structure, method of entry and enzymatic function.

Results: Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Stx1 and Stx2 amino acid and nucleotide sequences from 41 strains of Escherichia coli, along with known stx sequences available from GenBank. The analysis confirmed the Stx1 and Stx2 divergence, and showed that there is generally more sequence variation among stx2 genes than stx1. The phylograms showed generally flat topologies among our strains' stx1 and stx2 genes. In the stx2 gene, 39.5% of the amino acid sites display very low nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution ratios.

Conclusion: The stx1 and stx2 genes used in this phylogenetic study show sequence conservation with no significant divergence with respect to place or time. These data could indicate that Shiga toxins are experiencing purifying selection.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Stx2 A and B Subunit Amino Acid Alignment. Sequences that are identical are on the same line and are pipe-delimited.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2211750&req=5

Figure 4: Stx2 A and B Subunit Amino Acid Alignment. Sequences that are identical are on the same line and are pipe-delimited.

Mentions: The Shiga toxin 2 A and B subunit sequences showed much more sequence diversity than did the Stx1 group. None of the putative substitutions replaced key residues used in the active site [24] or either of the cysteines that form the disulfide bridge between A1 and A2. There were 56 total amino acid differences from EDL933 Stx2 in this study's sequences, 28 in the A subunit and 28 in the B subunit. Twenty-five of these changes occurred in I7606 Stx2. The number of positions in each subunit that were affected was 17 for the A subunit and 15 for the B subunit. The Stx2 alignment (Figure 4) shows all of the amino acid differences among this study's sequences, along with Stx2d1, Stx2d2, Stx2e, Stx2f, Stx2g and Citrobacter freundii Stx2 sequences from GenBank.


Phylogenetic analysis of Shiga toxin 1 and Shiga toxin 2 genes associated with disease outbreaks.

Lee JE, Reed J, Shields MS, Spiegel KM, Farrell LD, Sheridan PP - BMC Microbiol. (2007)

Stx2 A and B Subunit Amino Acid Alignment. Sequences that are identical are on the same line and are pipe-delimited.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2211750&req=5

Figure 4: Stx2 A and B Subunit Amino Acid Alignment. Sequences that are identical are on the same line and are pipe-delimited.
Mentions: The Shiga toxin 2 A and B subunit sequences showed much more sequence diversity than did the Stx1 group. None of the putative substitutions replaced key residues used in the active site [24] or either of the cysteines that form the disulfide bridge between A1 and A2. There were 56 total amino acid differences from EDL933 Stx2 in this study's sequences, 28 in the A subunit and 28 in the B subunit. Twenty-five of these changes occurred in I7606 Stx2. The number of positions in each subunit that were affected was 17 for the A subunit and 15 for the B subunit. The Stx2 alignment (Figure 4) shows all of the amino acid differences among this study's sequences, along with Stx2d1, Stx2d2, Stx2e, Stx2f, Stx2g and Citrobacter freundii Stx2 sequences from GenBank.

Bottom Line: The analysis confirmed the Stx1 and Stx2 divergence, and showed that there is generally more sequence variation among stx2 genes than stx1.The stx1 and stx2 genes used in this phylogenetic study show sequence conservation with no significant divergence with respect to place or time.These data could indicate that Shiga toxins are experiencing purifying selection.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, 921 South 8th Ave,, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007, USA. james.e.lee@amedd.army.mil

ABSTRACT

Background: Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2) are bacteriophage-encoded proteins that have been associated with hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and other severe disease conditions. Stx1 and Stx2 are genetically and immunologically distinct but share the same compound toxin structure, method of entry and enzymatic function.

Results: Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Stx1 and Stx2 amino acid and nucleotide sequences from 41 strains of Escherichia coli, along with known stx sequences available from GenBank. The analysis confirmed the Stx1 and Stx2 divergence, and showed that there is generally more sequence variation among stx2 genes than stx1. The phylograms showed generally flat topologies among our strains' stx1 and stx2 genes. In the stx2 gene, 39.5% of the amino acid sites display very low nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution ratios.

Conclusion: The stx1 and stx2 genes used in this phylogenetic study show sequence conservation with no significant divergence with respect to place or time. These data could indicate that Shiga toxins are experiencing purifying selection.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus