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Surgical simulator design and development.

Dankelman J - World J Surg (2008)

Bottom Line: Several training simulators have become commercially available, but fundamental research into the requirements for effective and efficient training in MIS is still lacking.During MIS, force feedback is reduced owing to friction in the laparoscopic instruments and within the trocar.Although force feedback is reduced during MIS, it is needed for tissue manipulation, and therefore force application should be trained as well.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of BioMechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering (3mE), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628, CD, The Netherlands. j.dankelman@tudelft.nl

ABSTRACT
With the introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), it became necessary to develop training methods to learn skills outside the operating room. Several training simulators have become commercially available, but fundamental research into the requirements for effective and efficient training in MIS is still lacking. Three aspects of developing a training program are investigated here: what should be trained, how it should be trained, and how to assess the results of training. In addition, studies are presented that have investigated the role of force feedback in surgical simulators. Training should be adapted to the level of behavior: skill-based, rule-based, or knowledge-based. These levels can be used to design and structure a training program. Extra motivation for training can be created by assessment. During MIS, force feedback is reduced owing to friction in the laparoscopic instruments and within the trocar. The friction characteristics vary largely among instruments and trocars. When force feedback is incorporated into training, it should include the large variation in force feedback properties as well. Training different levels of behavior requires different training methods. Although force feedback is reduced during MIS, it is needed for tissue manipulation, and therefore force application should be trained as well.

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Simendo virtual reality simulator for basic skills training
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Fig1: Simendo virtual reality simulator for basic skills training

Mentions: In VR simulators, abstract environments with objects or tissues and organs are simulated with computer models. Some of the simulators are equipped with force feedback that is generated by servo motors that augment the instruments [4]. The systems with force feedback are costly, and the level of realism is rather limited. The performance feedback properties of VR simulators are stimulating their use, and automatic supervision of training sessions is easily implemented. An example of such a trainer developed at the Delft University of Technology is the Simendo, which has been commercialized by DelltaTech (www.simendo.eu) (Fig. 1). A mobile, plug-and-play low-fidelity system based on a laptop or desktop system, Simendo focuses on training hand-eye coordination. The goal was to develop an affordable basic skills trainer. Its price is about that of a sophisticated laptop [16].Fig. 1


Surgical simulator design and development.

Dankelman J - World J Surg (2008)

Simendo virtual reality simulator for basic skills training
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2211365&req=5

Fig1: Simendo virtual reality simulator for basic skills training
Mentions: In VR simulators, abstract environments with objects or tissues and organs are simulated with computer models. Some of the simulators are equipped with force feedback that is generated by servo motors that augment the instruments [4]. The systems with force feedback are costly, and the level of realism is rather limited. The performance feedback properties of VR simulators are stimulating their use, and automatic supervision of training sessions is easily implemented. An example of such a trainer developed at the Delft University of Technology is the Simendo, which has been commercialized by DelltaTech (www.simendo.eu) (Fig. 1). A mobile, plug-and-play low-fidelity system based on a laptop or desktop system, Simendo focuses on training hand-eye coordination. The goal was to develop an affordable basic skills trainer. Its price is about that of a sophisticated laptop [16].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Several training simulators have become commercially available, but fundamental research into the requirements for effective and efficient training in MIS is still lacking.During MIS, force feedback is reduced owing to friction in the laparoscopic instruments and within the trocar.Although force feedback is reduced during MIS, it is needed for tissue manipulation, and therefore force application should be trained as well.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of BioMechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering (3mE), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628, CD, The Netherlands. j.dankelman@tudelft.nl

ABSTRACT
With the introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), it became necessary to develop training methods to learn skills outside the operating room. Several training simulators have become commercially available, but fundamental research into the requirements for effective and efficient training in MIS is still lacking. Three aspects of developing a training program are investigated here: what should be trained, how it should be trained, and how to assess the results of training. In addition, studies are presented that have investigated the role of force feedback in surgical simulators. Training should be adapted to the level of behavior: skill-based, rule-based, or knowledge-based. These levels can be used to design and structure a training program. Extra motivation for training can be created by assessment. During MIS, force feedback is reduced owing to friction in the laparoscopic instruments and within the trocar. The friction characteristics vary largely among instruments and trocars. When force feedback is incorporated into training, it should include the large variation in force feedback properties as well. Training different levels of behavior requires different training methods. Although force feedback is reduced during MIS, it is needed for tissue manipulation, and therefore force application should be trained as well.

Show MeSH