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Can the measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation be applied to the acute exercise model?

Padilla J, Harris RA, Wallace JP - Cardiovasc Ultrasound (2007)

Bottom Line: Do we need to account for diurnal variation?Is there an optimal time to measure post-exercise flow-mediated dilation?Is the post-exercise flow-mediated dilation reproducible?

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA. jpadilla@indiana.edu

ABSTRACT
The measurement of flow-mediated dilation using high-resolution ultrasound has been utilized extensively in interventional trials evaluating the salutary effect of drugs and lifestyle modifications (i.e. diet or exercise training) on endothelial function; however, until recently researchers have not used flow-mediated dilation to examine the role of a single bout of exercise on vascular function. Utilizing the acute exercise model can be advantageous as it allows for an efficient manipulation of exercise variables (i.e. mode, intensity, duration, etc.) and permits greater experimental control of confounding variables. Given that the application of flow-mediated dilation in the acute exercise paradigm is expanding, the purpose of this review is to discuss methodological and physiological factors pertinent to flow-mediated dilation in the context of acute exercise. Although the scientific rationale for evaluating endothelial function in response to acute exercise is sound, few concerns warrant attention when interpreting flow-mediated dilation data following acute exercise. The following questions will be addressed in the present review: Does the measurement of flow-mediated dilation influence subsequent serial measures of flow-mediated dilation? Do we need to account for diurnal variation? Is there an optimal time to measure post-exercise flow-mediated dilation? Is the post-exercise flow-mediated dilation reproducible? How is flow-mediated dilation interpreted considering the hemodynamic and sympathetic changes associated with acute exercise? Can the measurement of endothelial-independent dilation affect the exercise? Evidence exists to support the methodological appropriateness for employing flow-mediated dilation in the acute exercise model; however, further research is warranted to clarify its interpretation following acute exercise.

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Representative experimental set up and design for evaluation of the FMD response to acute exercise.
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Figure 1: Representative experimental set up and design for evaluation of the FMD response to acute exercise.

Mentions: Although the number of investigations reporting brachial artery FMD following exercise is scarce [16-24], the purpose for the study of post-exercise endothelial function and the diversity of the populations studied are not [see Additional file 1]. Oxidative stress [22], systemic and regional hemodynamics [18], postprandial endothelial function [19], endothelial response to acute exercise [16,23], inhaled particulate matter [24], and muscle ischemia [17] have been the focus of studies utilizing FMD in the acute exercise paradigm. Subjects have ranged from intercollegiate athletes [24] to apparently healthy adults [19] including pre- and post-menopausal women [18] and habitually sedentary men [20]; and to patients with claudication [17,21,22], renal disease [16], and who are overweight [23]. The breadth of journals publishing research articles utilizing the acute exercise model include cardiology [16,21,22], hypertension [18], exercise [20], thrombosis [17], obesity [23], physiology [19], and toxicology [24] foci. The only consistency found across all these studies is the use of treadmill walking/running as the mode of exercise. We consider treadmill exercise as a suitable mode due to its systemic effects and representation of the most common form of physical activity. Figure 1 illustrates a representative experimental set up and design for evaluation of the FMD response to acute exercise.


Can the measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation be applied to the acute exercise model?

Padilla J, Harris RA, Wallace JP - Cardiovasc Ultrasound (2007)

Representative experimental set up and design for evaluation of the FMD response to acute exercise.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2211283&req=5

Figure 1: Representative experimental set up and design for evaluation of the FMD response to acute exercise.
Mentions: Although the number of investigations reporting brachial artery FMD following exercise is scarce [16-24], the purpose for the study of post-exercise endothelial function and the diversity of the populations studied are not [see Additional file 1]. Oxidative stress [22], systemic and regional hemodynamics [18], postprandial endothelial function [19], endothelial response to acute exercise [16,23], inhaled particulate matter [24], and muscle ischemia [17] have been the focus of studies utilizing FMD in the acute exercise paradigm. Subjects have ranged from intercollegiate athletes [24] to apparently healthy adults [19] including pre- and post-menopausal women [18] and habitually sedentary men [20]; and to patients with claudication [17,21,22], renal disease [16], and who are overweight [23]. The breadth of journals publishing research articles utilizing the acute exercise model include cardiology [16,21,22], hypertension [18], exercise [20], thrombosis [17], obesity [23], physiology [19], and toxicology [24] foci. The only consistency found across all these studies is the use of treadmill walking/running as the mode of exercise. We consider treadmill exercise as a suitable mode due to its systemic effects and representation of the most common form of physical activity. Figure 1 illustrates a representative experimental set up and design for evaluation of the FMD response to acute exercise.

Bottom Line: Do we need to account for diurnal variation?Is there an optimal time to measure post-exercise flow-mediated dilation?Is the post-exercise flow-mediated dilation reproducible?

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA. jpadilla@indiana.edu

ABSTRACT
The measurement of flow-mediated dilation using high-resolution ultrasound has been utilized extensively in interventional trials evaluating the salutary effect of drugs and lifestyle modifications (i.e. diet or exercise training) on endothelial function; however, until recently researchers have not used flow-mediated dilation to examine the role of a single bout of exercise on vascular function. Utilizing the acute exercise model can be advantageous as it allows for an efficient manipulation of exercise variables (i.e. mode, intensity, duration, etc.) and permits greater experimental control of confounding variables. Given that the application of flow-mediated dilation in the acute exercise paradigm is expanding, the purpose of this review is to discuss methodological and physiological factors pertinent to flow-mediated dilation in the context of acute exercise. Although the scientific rationale for evaluating endothelial function in response to acute exercise is sound, few concerns warrant attention when interpreting flow-mediated dilation data following acute exercise. The following questions will be addressed in the present review: Does the measurement of flow-mediated dilation influence subsequent serial measures of flow-mediated dilation? Do we need to account for diurnal variation? Is there an optimal time to measure post-exercise flow-mediated dilation? Is the post-exercise flow-mediated dilation reproducible? How is flow-mediated dilation interpreted considering the hemodynamic and sympathetic changes associated with acute exercise? Can the measurement of endothelial-independent dilation affect the exercise? Evidence exists to support the methodological appropriateness for employing flow-mediated dilation in the acute exercise model; however, further research is warranted to clarify its interpretation following acute exercise.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus