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Change of diurnal heart rate patterns during pregnancy and lactation in dogs (Canis familiaris).

Olsson K, Lagerstedt AS, Bergström A, Häggström J - Acta Vet. Scand. (2003)

Bottom Line: The results at this date are not included in the statistical comparison.The heart rate increased progressively during pregnancy and was still elevated at 4 weeks of lactation.In conclusion, the increased heart rates during pregnancy and lactation reflect increased demands on the cardiovascular system and may be important to consider in clinical practice.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. kerstin.olsson@djfys.slu.se

ABSTRACT
Pregnancy and lactation involve great demands on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the heart rate and diurnal heart rate pattern change when dogs become pregnant or lactate. Five clinically healthy female beagle dogs were mated, and delivered three to seven healthy puppies. The heart rate was investigated with 24-h ECG (Holter) once during anoestrus, at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of pregnancy, and at week 4 postpartum (lactation). However, at 9 weeks, the ECG could not be recorded for the fully 24 h in 4 of 5 dogs, because labour started and the dogs then appeared disturbed by the recordings. The results at this date are not included in the statistical comparison. The heart rate increased progressively during pregnancy and was still elevated at 4 weeks of lactation. During late pregnancy the difference in heart rates between daytime and nighttime became smaller, but the heart rate was significantly higher in daytime in all periods. In conclusion, the increased heart rates during pregnancy and lactation reflect increased demands on the cardiovascular system and may be important to consider in clinical practice.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Diurnal changes of heart rate obtained by continuous 24 h (Holter) ECG in 5 beagle dogs during anoestrus, pregnancy and lactation. For simplicity only the means are shown (for means and SEM, see Table 2). The heart rate was significantly (p < 0.001) increased already at 3 weeks of pregnancy compared to anoestral values and was further increased at 5 and 7 weeks of pregnancy. At 4 weeks of lactation, the heart rate had decreased to a level similar to that at 3 weeks of pregnancy. Bpm = beats per minute.
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Figure 1: Diurnal changes of heart rate obtained by continuous 24 h (Holter) ECG in 5 beagle dogs during anoestrus, pregnancy and lactation. For simplicity only the means are shown (for means and SEM, see Table 2). The heart rate was significantly (p < 0.001) increased already at 3 weeks of pregnancy compared to anoestral values and was further increased at 5 and 7 weeks of pregnancy. At 4 weeks of lactation, the heart rate had decreased to a level similar to that at 3 weeks of pregnancy. Bpm = beats per minute.

Mentions: The heart rate changed in relation to reproductive period and time of day (Table 2 and Fig. 1). In all 5 dogs the heart rate increased in the morning when the technicians arrived and the dogs were fed. The heart rate gradually decreased throughout the day to reach the lowest value after midnight. Overall the heart rates were already increased at 3 weeks of pregnancy compared to anoestral values (p < 0.001). The heart rates were further increased at 5 and at 7 weeks of pregnancy (p < 0.001 compared to 3 weeks of pregnancy). At 9 weeks of pregnancy, heart rate was recorded during 1 to 24 h (Table 2). The Holter equipment was removed after the birth of the first puppy in two dogs and at 1 or 2 h before the birth of the first puppy in two other dogs. The mean hourly heart rate was higher in each of the five dogs close to parturition compared to values obtained at 7 weeks of pregnancy at the same time of the day. However, this difference was not statistically evaluated as a complete data set was only obtained in one dog. At 4 weeks of lactation, the heart rates had decreased to a level similar to that at 3 weeks of pregnancy, that is lower than at 5 and 7 weeks of pregnancy but higher than during anoestrus (Table 2 and Fig. 1).


Change of diurnal heart rate patterns during pregnancy and lactation in dogs (Canis familiaris).

Olsson K, Lagerstedt AS, Bergström A, Häggström J - Acta Vet. Scand. (2003)

Diurnal changes of heart rate obtained by continuous 24 h (Holter) ECG in 5 beagle dogs during anoestrus, pregnancy and lactation. For simplicity only the means are shown (for means and SEM, see Table 2). The heart rate was significantly (p < 0.001) increased already at 3 weeks of pregnancy compared to anoestral values and was further increased at 5 and 7 weeks of pregnancy. At 4 weeks of lactation, the heart rate had decreased to a level similar to that at 3 weeks of pregnancy. Bpm = beats per minute.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2203301&req=5

Figure 1: Diurnal changes of heart rate obtained by continuous 24 h (Holter) ECG in 5 beagle dogs during anoestrus, pregnancy and lactation. For simplicity only the means are shown (for means and SEM, see Table 2). The heart rate was significantly (p < 0.001) increased already at 3 weeks of pregnancy compared to anoestral values and was further increased at 5 and 7 weeks of pregnancy. At 4 weeks of lactation, the heart rate had decreased to a level similar to that at 3 weeks of pregnancy. Bpm = beats per minute.
Mentions: The heart rate changed in relation to reproductive period and time of day (Table 2 and Fig. 1). In all 5 dogs the heart rate increased in the morning when the technicians arrived and the dogs were fed. The heart rate gradually decreased throughout the day to reach the lowest value after midnight. Overall the heart rates were already increased at 3 weeks of pregnancy compared to anoestral values (p < 0.001). The heart rates were further increased at 5 and at 7 weeks of pregnancy (p < 0.001 compared to 3 weeks of pregnancy). At 9 weeks of pregnancy, heart rate was recorded during 1 to 24 h (Table 2). The Holter equipment was removed after the birth of the first puppy in two dogs and at 1 or 2 h before the birth of the first puppy in two other dogs. The mean hourly heart rate was higher in each of the five dogs close to parturition compared to values obtained at 7 weeks of pregnancy at the same time of the day. However, this difference was not statistically evaluated as a complete data set was only obtained in one dog. At 4 weeks of lactation, the heart rates had decreased to a level similar to that at 3 weeks of pregnancy, that is lower than at 5 and 7 weeks of pregnancy but higher than during anoestrus (Table 2 and Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: The results at this date are not included in the statistical comparison.The heart rate increased progressively during pregnancy and was still elevated at 4 weeks of lactation.In conclusion, the increased heart rates during pregnancy and lactation reflect increased demands on the cardiovascular system and may be important to consider in clinical practice.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. kerstin.olsson@djfys.slu.se

ABSTRACT
Pregnancy and lactation involve great demands on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the heart rate and diurnal heart rate pattern change when dogs become pregnant or lactate. Five clinically healthy female beagle dogs were mated, and delivered three to seven healthy puppies. The heart rate was investigated with 24-h ECG (Holter) once during anoestrus, at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of pregnancy, and at week 4 postpartum (lactation). However, at 9 weeks, the ECG could not be recorded for the fully 24 h in 4 of 5 dogs, because labour started and the dogs then appeared disturbed by the recordings. The results at this date are not included in the statistical comparison. The heart rate increased progressively during pregnancy and was still elevated at 4 weeks of lactation. During late pregnancy the difference in heart rates between daytime and nighttime became smaller, but the heart rate was significantly higher in daytime in all periods. In conclusion, the increased heart rates during pregnancy and lactation reflect increased demands on the cardiovascular system and may be important to consider in clinical practice.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus