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The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure.

Moral R, Wang R, Russo IH, Mailo DA, Lamartiniere CA, Russo J - BMC Genomics (2007)

Bottom Line: BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues.BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages.By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Breast Cancer Research Laboratory, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA. Raquel.Moral@uab.es

ABSTRACT

Background: Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2-20) to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days).

Results: Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days), becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals.

Conclusion: These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Genomic changes induced by BBP. Number of differentially expressed genes in the mammary glands of rats exposed neonatally/prepubertally to BBP when compared to controls at different ages. Genes were obtained by confident analysis of microarrays data at p < 0.05.
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Figure 2: Genomic changes induced by BBP. Number of differentially expressed genes in the mammary glands of rats exposed neonatally/prepubertally to BBP when compared to controls at different ages. Genes were obtained by confident analysis of microarrays data at p < 0.05.

Mentions: Neonatal/prepubertal exposure to BBP induced changes in the gene expression pattern of the mammary gland mainly by 21 days, just after the end of the treatment, and the number of modulated genes was low thereafter (Figure 2). In 21 days-old rats, BBP exposure resulted in the up-regulation of 515 genes, 141 of which were known, and included genes related to morphogenesis and cell differentiation, transcription factors, cell proliferation, response to stress, signal transduction, metabolism, transport and cell organization (Table 2). There was only one down-regulated gene (gad1). At 35 days of age the number of up-regulated genes decreased significantly to four unknown; two genes were down-regulated (one known -gad1-). By 50 days of age, 25 genes were up-regulated (10 known), and 14 genes were down-regulated (eight known). In the 100 day-old group, two known and one unknown genes were up-modulated (Table 2).


The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure.

Moral R, Wang R, Russo IH, Mailo DA, Lamartiniere CA, Russo J - BMC Genomics (2007)

Genomic changes induced by BBP. Number of differentially expressed genes in the mammary glands of rats exposed neonatally/prepubertally to BBP when compared to controls at different ages. Genes were obtained by confident analysis of microarrays data at p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2200869&req=5

Figure 2: Genomic changes induced by BBP. Number of differentially expressed genes in the mammary glands of rats exposed neonatally/prepubertally to BBP when compared to controls at different ages. Genes were obtained by confident analysis of microarrays data at p < 0.05.
Mentions: Neonatal/prepubertal exposure to BBP induced changes in the gene expression pattern of the mammary gland mainly by 21 days, just after the end of the treatment, and the number of modulated genes was low thereafter (Figure 2). In 21 days-old rats, BBP exposure resulted in the up-regulation of 515 genes, 141 of which were known, and included genes related to morphogenesis and cell differentiation, transcription factors, cell proliferation, response to stress, signal transduction, metabolism, transport and cell organization (Table 2). There was only one down-regulated gene (gad1). At 35 days of age the number of up-regulated genes decreased significantly to four unknown; two genes were down-regulated (one known -gad1-). By 50 days of age, 25 genes were up-regulated (10 known), and 14 genes were down-regulated (eight known). In the 100 day-old group, two known and one unknown genes were up-modulated (Table 2).

Bottom Line: BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues.BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages.By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Breast Cancer Research Laboratory, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA. Raquel.Moral@uab.es

ABSTRACT

Background: Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2-20) to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days).

Results: Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days), becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals.

Conclusion: These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus