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Adverse health effects of low levels of perceived control in Swedish and Russian community samples.

Lundberg J, Bobak M, Malyutina S, Kristenson M, Pikhart H - BMC Public Health (2007)

Bottom Line: Self-rated health was assessed by standard single question with five possible answers, with a cut-off point at the top two alternatives. 32.2 % of Swedish men and women reported good health, compared to 10.3 % of Russian men and women.Levels of perceived control were also significantly lower in Russia than in Sweden and varied by socio-demographic parameters in both populations.Although the cross-sectional design does not allow causal inference, these results support the view that perceived control influences health, and that it may mediate the link between socioeconomic hardship and health.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: 1Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden. johanna.lundberg@ihs.liu.se

ABSTRACT

Background: This cross-sectional study of two middle-aged community samples from Sweden and Russia examined the distribution of perceived control scores in the two populations, investigated differences in individual control items between the populations, and assessed the association between perceived control and self-rated health.

Methods: The samples consisted of men and women aged 45-69 years, randomly selected from national and local population registers in southeast Sweden (n = 1007) and in Novosibirsk, Russia (n = 9231). Data were collected by structured questionnaires and clinical measures at a visit to a clinic. The questionnaire covered socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, societal circumstances, and psychosocial measures. Self-rated health was assessed by standard single question with five possible answers, with a cut-off point at the top two alternatives.

Results: 32.2 % of Swedish men and women reported good health, compared to 10.3 % of Russian men and women. Levels of perceived control were also significantly lower in Russia than in Sweden and varied by socio-demographic parameters in both populations. Sub-item analysis of the control questionnaire revealed substantial differences between the populations both in the perception of control over life and over health. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratios (OR) of poor self-rated health were significantly increased in men and women with low perceived control in both countries (OR between 2.61 and 4.26).

Conclusion: Although the cross-sectional design does not allow causal inference, these results support the view that perceived control influences health, and that it may mediate the link between socioeconomic hardship and health.

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Mean control score per level of education for men and women in Sweden and Russia.
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Figure 2: Mean control score per level of education for men and women in Sweden and Russia.

Mentions: The mean control scores were higher in the Swedish population. For Swedish men, the mean control score was 40.6, while for Russian men it was 34.5 (Table 2). For Swedish women, the mean score was 39.0, compared to 33.6 for Russian women (for both sexes p < 0.001 for differences in control scores between 2 countries). Figure 1 shows cumulative frequency of perceived control score. Lower control scores among Russians can be seen across whole sample distribution. Control levels showed a linear relation to educational status within both populations, but the scores also formed a social gradient across the countries, as the highest scores were seen with highly educated Swedes while the lowest scores were found among Russians with low education (Figure 2). Widowed women had the lowest control score among the total Swedish population, but their score was still higher than the total mean score of Russian women. Widowed men had the lowest control score in the Russian sample. Control levels were also, in general, decreasing with higher age, except for Swedish men who instead seem to increase their control levels up to 55–59 years of age before declining.


Adverse health effects of low levels of perceived control in Swedish and Russian community samples.

Lundberg J, Bobak M, Malyutina S, Kristenson M, Pikhart H - BMC Public Health (2007)

Mean control score per level of education for men and women in Sweden and Russia.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2200648&req=5

Figure 2: Mean control score per level of education for men and women in Sweden and Russia.
Mentions: The mean control scores were higher in the Swedish population. For Swedish men, the mean control score was 40.6, while for Russian men it was 34.5 (Table 2). For Swedish women, the mean score was 39.0, compared to 33.6 for Russian women (for both sexes p < 0.001 for differences in control scores between 2 countries). Figure 1 shows cumulative frequency of perceived control score. Lower control scores among Russians can be seen across whole sample distribution. Control levels showed a linear relation to educational status within both populations, but the scores also formed a social gradient across the countries, as the highest scores were seen with highly educated Swedes while the lowest scores were found among Russians with low education (Figure 2). Widowed women had the lowest control score among the total Swedish population, but their score was still higher than the total mean score of Russian women. Widowed men had the lowest control score in the Russian sample. Control levels were also, in general, decreasing with higher age, except for Swedish men who instead seem to increase their control levels up to 55–59 years of age before declining.

Bottom Line: Self-rated health was assessed by standard single question with five possible answers, with a cut-off point at the top two alternatives. 32.2 % of Swedish men and women reported good health, compared to 10.3 % of Russian men and women.Levels of perceived control were also significantly lower in Russia than in Sweden and varied by socio-demographic parameters in both populations.Although the cross-sectional design does not allow causal inference, these results support the view that perceived control influences health, and that it may mediate the link between socioeconomic hardship and health.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: 1Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden. johanna.lundberg@ihs.liu.se

ABSTRACT

Background: This cross-sectional study of two middle-aged community samples from Sweden and Russia examined the distribution of perceived control scores in the two populations, investigated differences in individual control items between the populations, and assessed the association between perceived control and self-rated health.

Methods: The samples consisted of men and women aged 45-69 years, randomly selected from national and local population registers in southeast Sweden (n = 1007) and in Novosibirsk, Russia (n = 9231). Data were collected by structured questionnaires and clinical measures at a visit to a clinic. The questionnaire covered socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, societal circumstances, and psychosocial measures. Self-rated health was assessed by standard single question with five possible answers, with a cut-off point at the top two alternatives.

Results: 32.2 % of Swedish men and women reported good health, compared to 10.3 % of Russian men and women. Levels of perceived control were also significantly lower in Russia than in Sweden and varied by socio-demographic parameters in both populations. Sub-item analysis of the control questionnaire revealed substantial differences between the populations both in the perception of control over life and over health. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratios (OR) of poor self-rated health were significantly increased in men and women with low perceived control in both countries (OR between 2.61 and 4.26).

Conclusion: Although the cross-sectional design does not allow causal inference, these results support the view that perceived control influences health, and that it may mediate the link between socioeconomic hardship and health.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus