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Exposure of the U.S. population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol: 2003-2004.

Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong LY, Reidy JA, Needham LL - Environ. Health Perspect. (2008)

Bottom Line: Least square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of BPA were significantly lower in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic blacks (p = 0.006) and non-Hispanic whites (p = 0.007); LSGM concentrations for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites were not statistically different (p = 0.21).LSGM concentrations were lowest for participants in the high household income category (> $45,000/year).Urine concentrations of total BPA differed by race/ethnicity, age, sex, and household income.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. Acalafat@cdc.gov <Acalafat@cdc.gov>

ABSTRACT

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tertiary-octylphenol (tOP) are industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins (BPA) and nonionic surfactants (tOP). These products are in widespread use in the United States.

Objectives: We aimed to assess exposure to BPA and tOP in the U.S. general population.

Methods: We measured the total (free plus conjugated) urinary concentrations of BPA and tOP in 2,517 participants > or = 6 years of age in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: BPA and tOP were detected in 92.6% and 57.4% of the persons, respectively. Least square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of BPA were significantly lower in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic blacks (p = 0.006) and non-Hispanic whites (p = 0.007); LSGM concentrations for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites were not statistically different (p = 0.21). Females had statistically higher BPA LSGM concentrations than males (p = 0.043). Children had higher concentrations than adolescents (p < 0.001), who in turn had higher concentrations than adults (p = 0.003). LSGM concentrations were lowest for participants in the high household income category (> $45,000/year).

Conclusions: Urine concentrations of total BPA differed by race/ethnicity, age, sex, and household income. These first U.S. population representative concentration data for urinary BPA and tOP should help guide public health research priorities, including studies of exposure pathways, potential health effects, and risk assessment.

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Geometric mean urinary concentrations of BPA (μg/L) for each daily examination period.
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f1-ehp0116-000039: Geometric mean urinary concentrations of BPA (μg/L) for each daily examination period.

Mentions: We compared the geometric mean BPA concentrations by examination session time, and separately for adults and for children and adolescents (Figure 1). The geometric mean concentrations of BPA were significantly higher in the morning than in the afternoon collections for all ages (p = 0.0134) and for adults (p = 0.015), but not for children and adolescents (p = 0.18). Similarly, the geometric mean concentrations of BPA were significantly higher in the evening than in the afternoon collections for all ages (p = 0.0317), but not for children and adolescents (p = 0.2), and only marginally different for adults (p = 0.06). The geometric mean concentrations of BPA between the morning and evening sessions were not significantly different [Supplemental Material, Table 2 (online at http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/10753/suppl.pdf)]. When we included examination session time as an independent variable, in addition to sex, race/ethnicity, age group, household income, and creatinine concentration, the final regression model for BPA for all ages, yielded comparable results plus one additional race/ethnicity-by-examination session time interaction term [Supplemental Material, Tables 3–4 (online at http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/10753/suppl.pdf)].


Exposure of the U.S. population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol: 2003-2004.

Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong LY, Reidy JA, Needham LL - Environ. Health Perspect. (2008)

Geometric mean urinary concentrations of BPA (μg/L) for each daily examination period.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2199288&req=5

f1-ehp0116-000039: Geometric mean urinary concentrations of BPA (μg/L) for each daily examination period.
Mentions: We compared the geometric mean BPA concentrations by examination session time, and separately for adults and for children and adolescents (Figure 1). The geometric mean concentrations of BPA were significantly higher in the morning than in the afternoon collections for all ages (p = 0.0134) and for adults (p = 0.015), but not for children and adolescents (p = 0.18). Similarly, the geometric mean concentrations of BPA were significantly higher in the evening than in the afternoon collections for all ages (p = 0.0317), but not for children and adolescents (p = 0.2), and only marginally different for adults (p = 0.06). The geometric mean concentrations of BPA between the morning and evening sessions were not significantly different [Supplemental Material, Table 2 (online at http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/10753/suppl.pdf)]. When we included examination session time as an independent variable, in addition to sex, race/ethnicity, age group, household income, and creatinine concentration, the final regression model for BPA for all ages, yielded comparable results plus one additional race/ethnicity-by-examination session time interaction term [Supplemental Material, Tables 3–4 (online at http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/10753/suppl.pdf)].

Bottom Line: Least square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of BPA were significantly lower in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic blacks (p = 0.006) and non-Hispanic whites (p = 0.007); LSGM concentrations for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites were not statistically different (p = 0.21).LSGM concentrations were lowest for participants in the high household income category (> $45,000/year).Urine concentrations of total BPA differed by race/ethnicity, age, sex, and household income.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. Acalafat@cdc.gov <Acalafat@cdc.gov>

ABSTRACT

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tertiary-octylphenol (tOP) are industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins (BPA) and nonionic surfactants (tOP). These products are in widespread use in the United States.

Objectives: We aimed to assess exposure to BPA and tOP in the U.S. general population.

Methods: We measured the total (free plus conjugated) urinary concentrations of BPA and tOP in 2,517 participants > or = 6 years of age in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: BPA and tOP were detected in 92.6% and 57.4% of the persons, respectively. Least square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of BPA were significantly lower in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic blacks (p = 0.006) and non-Hispanic whites (p = 0.007); LSGM concentrations for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites were not statistically different (p = 0.21). Females had statistically higher BPA LSGM concentrations than males (p = 0.043). Children had higher concentrations than adolescents (p < 0.001), who in turn had higher concentrations than adults (p = 0.003). LSGM concentrations were lowest for participants in the high household income category (> $45,000/year).

Conclusions: Urine concentrations of total BPA differed by race/ethnicity, age, sex, and household income. These first U.S. population representative concentration data for urinary BPA and tOP should help guide public health research priorities, including studies of exposure pathways, potential health effects, and risk assessment.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus