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Urinary deoxynivalenol is correlated with cereal intake in individuals from the United kingdom.

Turner PC, Rothwell JA, White KL, Gong Y, Cade JE, Wild CP - Environ. Health Perspect. (2008)

Bottom Line: Cereal intake was significantly associated with urinary DON (p < 0.0005), with the geometric mean urinary levels being 6.55 microg DON/day [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.71-7.53]; 9.63 microg/day (95% CI, 8.39-11.05); and 13.24 microg/day (95% CI, 11.54-15.19) for low-, medium-, and high-intake groups, respectively.In multivariable analysis, wholemeal bread (p < 0.0005), white bread (p < 0.0005), "other" bread (p < 0.0005), buns/cakes (p = 0.003), high-fiber breakfast cereal (p = 0.016), and pasta (p = 0.017) were significantly associated with urinary DON.Wholemeal bread was associated with the greatest percent increase in urinary DON per unit of consumption, but white bread contributed approximately twice as much as wholemeal bread to the urinary DON levels because it was consumed in higher amounts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Epidemiology Unit Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds United.

ABSTRACT

Background: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a toxic fungal metabolite that frequently contaminates cereal crops. DON is toxic to animals, but the effects on humans are poorly understood, in part because exposure estimates are of limited precision.

Objectives: In this study we used the U.K. adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey to compare 24-hr urinary DON excretion with cereal intake.

Methods: One hundred subjects were identified for each of the following cereal consumption groups: low (mean, 107 g cereal/day; range, 88-125), medium (mean, 179 g/day; range, 162-195) and high (mean, 300 g/day; range, 276-325). DON was analyzed in 24-hr urine samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after purification on immunoaffinity columns.

Results: DON was detected in 296 of 300 (98.7%) urine samples. Cereal intake was significantly associated with urinary DON (p < 0.0005), with the geometric mean urinary levels being 6.55 microg DON/day [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.71-7.53]; 9.63 microg/day (95% CI, 8.39-11.05); and 13.24 microg/day (95% CI, 11.54-15.19) for low-, medium-, and high-intake groups, respectively. In multivariable analysis, wholemeal bread (p < 0.0005), white bread (p < 0.0005), "other" bread (p < 0.0005), buns/cakes (p = 0.003), high-fiber breakfast cereal (p = 0.016), and pasta (p = 0.017) were significantly associated with urinary DON. Wholemeal bread was associated with the greatest percent increase in urinary DON per unit of consumption, but white bread contributed approximately twice as much as wholemeal bread to the urinary DON levels because it was consumed in higher amounts.

Conclusion: The majority of adults in the United Kingdom appear to be exposed to DON, and on the basis of the urinary levels, we estimate that some individuals may exceed the European Union (EU) recommended maximum tolerable daily intake of 1,000 ng DON/kg (bw). This exposure biomarker will be a valuable tool for biomonitoring as part of surveillance strategies and in etiologic studies of DON and human disease risk.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Urinary DON by cereal intake group. Geometric mean and 95% CI values for the level of DON in 24-hr urine samples based on low cereal intake (mean, 107 g; range, 88–125), medium (mean 179; range, 162–195) and high (mean, 300 g; range, 276–325). Data are adjusted for sex, age, and BMI. p for trend < 0.0005, adjusted R2 = 0.182.
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f1-ehp0116-000021: Urinary DON by cereal intake group. Geometric mean and 95% CI values for the level of DON in 24-hr urine samples based on low cereal intake (mean, 107 g; range, 88–125), medium (mean 179; range, 162–195) and high (mean, 300 g; range, 276–325). Data are adjusted for sex, age, and BMI. p for trend < 0.0005, adjusted R2 = 0.182.

Mentions: DON was detected in 296 of 300 (98.7%) urine samples (geometric mean, 9.42 μg DON/day; range, nondetectable to 65.97 μg/day). Cereal intake, as a continuous variable, was significantly associated with urinary DON (p < 0.0005). Within each category of cereal intake individual urinary DON was variable, though there was a significant increase in geometric mean level between the low cereal intake group (6.55 μg/day; 95% CI, 5.71–7.53) and the medium group (9.63 μg/day; 95% CI, 8.39–11.05; p = 0.001); between the low and the high groups (13.24 μg/day; 95% CI, 11.54–15.19; p < 0.0005); and between the medium- and high-intake groups (p = 0.017) after adjustment for sex, BMI, and age (Figure 1). In this model 18.2% of the variance in DON level was explained by the variables considered.


Urinary deoxynivalenol is correlated with cereal intake in individuals from the United kingdom.

Turner PC, Rothwell JA, White KL, Gong Y, Cade JE, Wild CP - Environ. Health Perspect. (2008)

Urinary DON by cereal intake group. Geometric mean and 95% CI values for the level of DON in 24-hr urine samples based on low cereal intake (mean, 107 g; range, 88–125), medium (mean 179; range, 162–195) and high (mean, 300 g; range, 276–325). Data are adjusted for sex, age, and BMI. p for trend < 0.0005, adjusted R2 = 0.182.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2199283&req=5

f1-ehp0116-000021: Urinary DON by cereal intake group. Geometric mean and 95% CI values for the level of DON in 24-hr urine samples based on low cereal intake (mean, 107 g; range, 88–125), medium (mean 179; range, 162–195) and high (mean, 300 g; range, 276–325). Data are adjusted for sex, age, and BMI. p for trend < 0.0005, adjusted R2 = 0.182.
Mentions: DON was detected in 296 of 300 (98.7%) urine samples (geometric mean, 9.42 μg DON/day; range, nondetectable to 65.97 μg/day). Cereal intake, as a continuous variable, was significantly associated with urinary DON (p < 0.0005). Within each category of cereal intake individual urinary DON was variable, though there was a significant increase in geometric mean level between the low cereal intake group (6.55 μg/day; 95% CI, 5.71–7.53) and the medium group (9.63 μg/day; 95% CI, 8.39–11.05; p = 0.001); between the low and the high groups (13.24 μg/day; 95% CI, 11.54–15.19; p < 0.0005); and between the medium- and high-intake groups (p = 0.017) after adjustment for sex, BMI, and age (Figure 1). In this model 18.2% of the variance in DON level was explained by the variables considered.

Bottom Line: Cereal intake was significantly associated with urinary DON (p < 0.0005), with the geometric mean urinary levels being 6.55 microg DON/day [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.71-7.53]; 9.63 microg/day (95% CI, 8.39-11.05); and 13.24 microg/day (95% CI, 11.54-15.19) for low-, medium-, and high-intake groups, respectively.In multivariable analysis, wholemeal bread (p < 0.0005), white bread (p < 0.0005), "other" bread (p < 0.0005), buns/cakes (p = 0.003), high-fiber breakfast cereal (p = 0.016), and pasta (p = 0.017) were significantly associated with urinary DON.Wholemeal bread was associated with the greatest percent increase in urinary DON per unit of consumption, but white bread contributed approximately twice as much as wholemeal bread to the urinary DON levels because it was consumed in higher amounts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Epidemiology Unit Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds United.

ABSTRACT

Background: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a toxic fungal metabolite that frequently contaminates cereal crops. DON is toxic to animals, but the effects on humans are poorly understood, in part because exposure estimates are of limited precision.

Objectives: In this study we used the U.K. adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey to compare 24-hr urinary DON excretion with cereal intake.

Methods: One hundred subjects were identified for each of the following cereal consumption groups: low (mean, 107 g cereal/day; range, 88-125), medium (mean, 179 g/day; range, 162-195) and high (mean, 300 g/day; range, 276-325). DON was analyzed in 24-hr urine samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after purification on immunoaffinity columns.

Results: DON was detected in 296 of 300 (98.7%) urine samples. Cereal intake was significantly associated with urinary DON (p < 0.0005), with the geometric mean urinary levels being 6.55 microg DON/day [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.71-7.53]; 9.63 microg/day (95% CI, 8.39-11.05); and 13.24 microg/day (95% CI, 11.54-15.19) for low-, medium-, and high-intake groups, respectively. In multivariable analysis, wholemeal bread (p < 0.0005), white bread (p < 0.0005), "other" bread (p < 0.0005), buns/cakes (p = 0.003), high-fiber breakfast cereal (p = 0.016), and pasta (p = 0.017) were significantly associated with urinary DON. Wholemeal bread was associated with the greatest percent increase in urinary DON per unit of consumption, but white bread contributed approximately twice as much as wholemeal bread to the urinary DON levels because it was consumed in higher amounts.

Conclusion: The majority of adults in the United Kingdom appear to be exposed to DON, and on the basis of the urinary levels, we estimate that some individuals may exceed the European Union (EU) recommended maximum tolerable daily intake of 1,000 ng DON/kg (bw). This exposure biomarker will be a valuable tool for biomonitoring as part of surveillance strategies and in etiologic studies of DON and human disease risk.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus