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Multiple cytokines and acute inflammation raise mouse leptin levels: potential role in inflammatory anorexia.

Sarraf P, Frederich RC, Turner EM, Ma G, Jaskowiak NT, Rivet DJ, Flier JS, Lowell BB, Fraker DL, Alexander HR - J. Exp. Med. (1997)

Bottom Line: Several inflammatory cytokines, most notably tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1, induce anorexia and loss of lean body mass, common manifestations of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.IL-10, IL-4, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and IL-2, cytokines not known to induce anorexia or decrease food intake, had no effect on leptin gene expression or serum leptin levels.After administration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leptin gene expression and leptin levels were increased.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Surgical Metabolism Section, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

ABSTRACT
Several inflammatory cytokines, most notably tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1, induce anorexia and loss of lean body mass, common manifestations of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. In C57BL/6 female mice, the administration of TNF, IL-1, and, to a lesser extent, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), produced a prompt and dose-dependent increase in serum leptin levels and leptin mRNA expression in fat. IL-10, IL-4, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and IL-2, cytokines not known to induce anorexia or decrease food intake, had no effect on leptin gene expression or serum leptin levels. After administration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leptin gene expression and leptin levels were increased. These findings suggest that leptin levels may be one mechanism by which anorexia is induced during acute inflammatory conditions.

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Kinetics of leptin in sera from mice injected with 100 μg/kg  of TNF or 1,000 U of IL-1, after a 7-h fast. All animals were food-deprived  during the experimental period. Each point represents mean ± SEM leptin level of 5–6 mice, except for the 13-h points, which represent 10–14  mice. Compared with fasted controls, significant differences are indicated  as *P <0.05.
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Figure 4: Kinetics of leptin in sera from mice injected with 100 μg/kg of TNF or 1,000 U of IL-1, after a 7-h fast. All animals were food-deprived during the experimental period. Each point represents mean ± SEM leptin level of 5–6 mice, except for the 13-h points, which represent 10–14 mice. Compared with fasted controls, significant differences are indicated as *P <0.05.

Mentions: We next examined the time course of effects of TNF and IL-1 on leptin levels (Fig. 4). After a 7-h fast, mice were injected with 100 μg/kg of TNF, or 1,000 U of IL-1. Expression of the leptin gene in retroperitoneal fat increased within 2 h after injection and was maximal 6–8 h after TNF administration (data not shown), while leptin serum levels reached a maximal three-fold elevation by 7 h, and subsequently returned toward baseline at 18 h. IL-1 induced a slower increase in leptin to a maximal twofold increase by 10 h, which persisted for at least another 8 h.


Multiple cytokines and acute inflammation raise mouse leptin levels: potential role in inflammatory anorexia.

Sarraf P, Frederich RC, Turner EM, Ma G, Jaskowiak NT, Rivet DJ, Flier JS, Lowell BB, Fraker DL, Alexander HR - J. Exp. Med. (1997)

Kinetics of leptin in sera from mice injected with 100 μg/kg  of TNF or 1,000 U of IL-1, after a 7-h fast. All animals were food-deprived  during the experimental period. Each point represents mean ± SEM leptin level of 5–6 mice, except for the 13-h points, which represent 10–14  mice. Compared with fasted controls, significant differences are indicated  as *P <0.05.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2196098&req=5

Figure 4: Kinetics of leptin in sera from mice injected with 100 μg/kg of TNF or 1,000 U of IL-1, after a 7-h fast. All animals were food-deprived during the experimental period. Each point represents mean ± SEM leptin level of 5–6 mice, except for the 13-h points, which represent 10–14 mice. Compared with fasted controls, significant differences are indicated as *P <0.05.
Mentions: We next examined the time course of effects of TNF and IL-1 on leptin levels (Fig. 4). After a 7-h fast, mice were injected with 100 μg/kg of TNF, or 1,000 U of IL-1. Expression of the leptin gene in retroperitoneal fat increased within 2 h after injection and was maximal 6–8 h after TNF administration (data not shown), while leptin serum levels reached a maximal three-fold elevation by 7 h, and subsequently returned toward baseline at 18 h. IL-1 induced a slower increase in leptin to a maximal twofold increase by 10 h, which persisted for at least another 8 h.

Bottom Line: Several inflammatory cytokines, most notably tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1, induce anorexia and loss of lean body mass, common manifestations of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.IL-10, IL-4, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and IL-2, cytokines not known to induce anorexia or decrease food intake, had no effect on leptin gene expression or serum leptin levels.After administration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leptin gene expression and leptin levels were increased.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Surgical Metabolism Section, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

ABSTRACT
Several inflammatory cytokines, most notably tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1, induce anorexia and loss of lean body mass, common manifestations of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. In C57BL/6 female mice, the administration of TNF, IL-1, and, to a lesser extent, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), produced a prompt and dose-dependent increase in serum leptin levels and leptin mRNA expression in fat. IL-10, IL-4, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and IL-2, cytokines not known to induce anorexia or decrease food intake, had no effect on leptin gene expression or serum leptin levels. After administration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leptin gene expression and leptin levels were increased. These findings suggest that leptin levels may be one mechanism by which anorexia is induced during acute inflammatory conditions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus