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Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model.

Touhami M, Laroubi A, Elhabazi K, Loubna F, Zrara I, Eljahiri Y, Oussama A, Grases F, Chait A - BMC Urol (2007)

Bottom Line: The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States.Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation.This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Ecophysiology Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, University Cadi Ayyad, PO Box 2390, Marrakech, 40000, Morocco. mohammed.touhami@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation.

Methods: The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG) and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC) for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 microl solution/g body weight). Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy.

Results: Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice.

Conclusion: These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Crystalline formations in the rat kidney cortex. Sections were viewed using a BX41 optical microscope and polarized light. a: Tissue from negative control rats, b: Tissue from rats treated with ethylene glycol (EG), ammonium chloride (AC) and 100% lemon juice, c: Tissue from rats treated with EG, AC and 75% lemon juice, d: Tissue from rats treated with EG, AC and 50% lemon juice, e: Tissue from rats treated with EG and AC only (positive control). Crystalline formations in the renal cortex are indicated by arrows. Magnification ×100.
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Figure 4: Crystalline formations in the rat kidney cortex. Sections were viewed using a BX41 optical microscope and polarized light. a: Tissue from negative control rats, b: Tissue from rats treated with ethylene glycol (EG), ammonium chloride (AC) and 100% lemon juice, c: Tissue from rats treated with EG, AC and 75% lemon juice, d: Tissue from rats treated with EG, AC and 50% lemon juice, e: Tissue from rats treated with EG and AC only (positive control). Crystalline formations in the renal cortex are indicated by arrows. Magnification ×100.

Mentions: Examination of kidney paraffin sections showed that Group 5 rats (EG/AC alone, positive control) had the greatest amount of CaOx deposition, and this was present in all parts of all three major areas of the kidney. Intratubular and interstitial crystals were observed on the cortex (Figs. 4d and 4e). There was greater calcification on surface of the renal parenchyma (Fig. 5) and the papillary tip (Fig. 6) in Group 5 rats compared to the Groups 2, 3 and 4 rats (EG/AC and lemon juice). Longitudinal sections showed the papillary tips were encrusted with CaOx crystals (Figs. 6d and 6e). Analysis of portions of these crystalline deposits removed from the papillary tip showed they were composed of CaOx monohydrate and CaOx dihydrate. No papillary encrustations were seen in tissue from the negative control rats (Group 1) (Fig. 6a) or rats treated with EG/AC and 100% lemon juice (Group 2) (Fig. 6b). Major calcium deposits were observed on the surface of the papillary tips in 33% of the positive control rats (Group 5) and 17% of the rats treated with EG/AC and 75% lemon juice (Group 3). All positive control rats (Group 5) had major calcium deposits on the surface of the cortex and medulla, while no such deposits were observed in the negative control rats (Group 1) (Tables 1 and 2). These morphological findings were consistent with the left kidney calcium level data.


Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model.

Touhami M, Laroubi A, Elhabazi K, Loubna F, Zrara I, Eljahiri Y, Oussama A, Grases F, Chait A - BMC Urol (2007)

Crystalline formations in the rat kidney cortex. Sections were viewed using a BX41 optical microscope and polarized light. a: Tissue from negative control rats, b: Tissue from rats treated with ethylene glycol (EG), ammonium chloride (AC) and 100% lemon juice, c: Tissue from rats treated with EG, AC and 75% lemon juice, d: Tissue from rats treated with EG, AC and 50% lemon juice, e: Tissue from rats treated with EG and AC only (positive control). Crystalline formations in the renal cortex are indicated by arrows. Magnification ×100.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2194764&req=5

Figure 4: Crystalline formations in the rat kidney cortex. Sections were viewed using a BX41 optical microscope and polarized light. a: Tissue from negative control rats, b: Tissue from rats treated with ethylene glycol (EG), ammonium chloride (AC) and 100% lemon juice, c: Tissue from rats treated with EG, AC and 75% lemon juice, d: Tissue from rats treated with EG, AC and 50% lemon juice, e: Tissue from rats treated with EG and AC only (positive control). Crystalline formations in the renal cortex are indicated by arrows. Magnification ×100.
Mentions: Examination of kidney paraffin sections showed that Group 5 rats (EG/AC alone, positive control) had the greatest amount of CaOx deposition, and this was present in all parts of all three major areas of the kidney. Intratubular and interstitial crystals were observed on the cortex (Figs. 4d and 4e). There was greater calcification on surface of the renal parenchyma (Fig. 5) and the papillary tip (Fig. 6) in Group 5 rats compared to the Groups 2, 3 and 4 rats (EG/AC and lemon juice). Longitudinal sections showed the papillary tips were encrusted with CaOx crystals (Figs. 6d and 6e). Analysis of portions of these crystalline deposits removed from the papillary tip showed they were composed of CaOx monohydrate and CaOx dihydrate. No papillary encrustations were seen in tissue from the negative control rats (Group 1) (Fig. 6a) or rats treated with EG/AC and 100% lemon juice (Group 2) (Fig. 6b). Major calcium deposits were observed on the surface of the papillary tips in 33% of the positive control rats (Group 5) and 17% of the rats treated with EG/AC and 75% lemon juice (Group 3). All positive control rats (Group 5) had major calcium deposits on the surface of the cortex and medulla, while no such deposits were observed in the negative control rats (Group 1) (Tables 1 and 2). These morphological findings were consistent with the left kidney calcium level data.

Bottom Line: The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States.Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation.This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Ecophysiology Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, University Cadi Ayyad, PO Box 2390, Marrakech, 40000, Morocco. mohammed.touhami@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation.

Methods: The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG) and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC) for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 microl solution/g body weight). Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy.

Results: Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice.

Conclusion: These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus