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Correlations between fMRI activation and individual psychotic symptoms in un-medicated subjects at high genetic risk of schizophrenia.

Whalley HC, Gountouna VE, Hall J, McIntosh A, Whyte MC, Simonotto E, Job DE, Owens DG, Johnstone EC, Lawrie SM - BMC Psychiatry (2007)

Bottom Line: Cerebellar activation was associated with delusions and suspiciousness/persecution scores across both tasks with differing patterns of laterality.These results support a role for the lateral temporal cortex in hallucinations and medial temporal lobe in positive psychotic symptoms.That the current results are seen in un-medicated high risk subjects indicates these associations are not specific to the established illness and are not related to medication effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Psychiatry, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. hwhalley@staffmail.ed.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been proposed that different types of psychopathology in schizophrenia may reflect distinguishable pathological processes. In the current study we aimed to address such associations in the absence of confounders such as medication and disease chronicity by examining specific relationships between fMRI activation and individual symptom severity scores in un-medicated subjects at high genetic risk of schizophrenia.

Methods: Associations were examined across two functional imaging paradigms: the Hayling sentence completion task, and an encoding/retrieval task, comprising encoding (at word classification) and retrieval (old word/new word judgement). Symptom severity was assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). Items examined were hallucinations, delusions, and suspiciousness/persecution.

Results: Associations were seen in the anterior middle temporal gyrus in relation to hallucination scores during the sentence completion task, and in the medial temporal lobe in association with suspiciousness/persecution scores in the encoding/retrieval task. Cerebellar activation was associated with delusions and suspiciousness/persecution scores across both tasks with differing patterns of laterality.

Conclusion: These results support a role for the lateral temporal cortex in hallucinations and medial temporal lobe in positive psychotic symptoms. They also highlight the potential role of the cerebellum in the formation of delusions. That the current results are seen in un-medicated high risk subjects indicates these associations are not specific to the established illness and are not related to medication effects.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Within group activation maps for sentence completion task (a, b) and verbal encoding/retrieval task (c-e). For the Hayling sentence completion test, contrasts shown are (a) sentence completion versus rest and (b) the parametric contrast representing increasing activation with increasing difficulty. For the encoding/retrieval task, contrasts shown are (c) word classification versus experimental baseline, (d) correct recognition versus experimental baseline, and (e) correct rejection versus experimental baseline. For illustration purposes maps are thresholded at T = 4.5, 4, 6, 5, 5 respectively, extent threshold = 50 voxels. Left hemisphere shown on left of image.
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Figure 2: Within group activation maps for sentence completion task (a, b) and verbal encoding/retrieval task (c-e). For the Hayling sentence completion test, contrasts shown are (a) sentence completion versus rest and (b) the parametric contrast representing increasing activation with increasing difficulty. For the encoding/retrieval task, contrasts shown are (c) word classification versus experimental baseline, (d) correct recognition versus experimental baseline, and (e) correct rejection versus experimental baseline. For illustration purposes maps are thresholded at T = 4.5, 4, 6, 5, 5 respectively, extent threshold = 50 voxels. Left hemisphere shown on left of image.

Mentions: For both experiments the within group maps for all contrasts of interest are shown in a Figure 2. These maps indicated regions commonly activated in these types of tasks and are consistent with previous results [26,27]. For sentence completion versus rest the main areas of activation were the left precentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, medial/superior frontal gyrus, middle/superior temporal gyrus, cerebellum and occipital lobes bilaterally. The parametric contrast indicated increasing activation with increasing difficulty in left superior/medial frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellum.


Correlations between fMRI activation and individual psychotic symptoms in un-medicated subjects at high genetic risk of schizophrenia.

Whalley HC, Gountouna VE, Hall J, McIntosh A, Whyte MC, Simonotto E, Job DE, Owens DG, Johnstone EC, Lawrie SM - BMC Psychiatry (2007)

Within group activation maps for sentence completion task (a, b) and verbal encoding/retrieval task (c-e). For the Hayling sentence completion test, contrasts shown are (a) sentence completion versus rest and (b) the parametric contrast representing increasing activation with increasing difficulty. For the encoding/retrieval task, contrasts shown are (c) word classification versus experimental baseline, (d) correct recognition versus experimental baseline, and (e) correct rejection versus experimental baseline. For illustration purposes maps are thresholded at T = 4.5, 4, 6, 5, 5 respectively, extent threshold = 50 voxels. Left hemisphere shown on left of image.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2169235&req=5

Figure 2: Within group activation maps for sentence completion task (a, b) and verbal encoding/retrieval task (c-e). For the Hayling sentence completion test, contrasts shown are (a) sentence completion versus rest and (b) the parametric contrast representing increasing activation with increasing difficulty. For the encoding/retrieval task, contrasts shown are (c) word classification versus experimental baseline, (d) correct recognition versus experimental baseline, and (e) correct rejection versus experimental baseline. For illustration purposes maps are thresholded at T = 4.5, 4, 6, 5, 5 respectively, extent threshold = 50 voxels. Left hemisphere shown on left of image.
Mentions: For both experiments the within group maps for all contrasts of interest are shown in a Figure 2. These maps indicated regions commonly activated in these types of tasks and are consistent with previous results [26,27]. For sentence completion versus rest the main areas of activation were the left precentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, medial/superior frontal gyrus, middle/superior temporal gyrus, cerebellum and occipital lobes bilaterally. The parametric contrast indicated increasing activation with increasing difficulty in left superior/medial frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellum.

Bottom Line: Cerebellar activation was associated with delusions and suspiciousness/persecution scores across both tasks with differing patterns of laterality.These results support a role for the lateral temporal cortex in hallucinations and medial temporal lobe in positive psychotic symptoms.That the current results are seen in un-medicated high risk subjects indicates these associations are not specific to the established illness and are not related to medication effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Psychiatry, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. hwhalley@staffmail.ed.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been proposed that different types of psychopathology in schizophrenia may reflect distinguishable pathological processes. In the current study we aimed to address such associations in the absence of confounders such as medication and disease chronicity by examining specific relationships between fMRI activation and individual symptom severity scores in un-medicated subjects at high genetic risk of schizophrenia.

Methods: Associations were examined across two functional imaging paradigms: the Hayling sentence completion task, and an encoding/retrieval task, comprising encoding (at word classification) and retrieval (old word/new word judgement). Symptom severity was assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). Items examined were hallucinations, delusions, and suspiciousness/persecution.

Results: Associations were seen in the anterior middle temporal gyrus in relation to hallucination scores during the sentence completion task, and in the medial temporal lobe in association with suspiciousness/persecution scores in the encoding/retrieval task. Cerebellar activation was associated with delusions and suspiciousness/persecution scores across both tasks with differing patterns of laterality.

Conclusion: These results support a role for the lateral temporal cortex in hallucinations and medial temporal lobe in positive psychotic symptoms. They also highlight the potential role of the cerebellum in the formation of delusions. That the current results are seen in un-medicated high risk subjects indicates these associations are not specific to the established illness and are not related to medication effects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus