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Small non-coding RNAs, mammalian cells, and viruses: regulatory interactions?

Yeung ML, Benkirane M, Jeang KT - Retrovirology (2007)

Bottom Line: Recent findings suggest that mammalian cells can use small non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) to regulate physiological viral infections.Here, we comment on several lines of evidence that support this concept.We discuss how viruses may in turn protect, suppress, evade, modulate, or adapt to the host cell's ncRNA regulatory schema.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Virology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0460, USA. yeungm@mail.nih.gov

ABSTRACT
Recent findings suggest that mammalian cells can use small non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) to regulate physiological viral infections. Here, we comment on several lines of evidence that support this concept. We discuss how viruses may in turn protect, suppress, evade, modulate, or adapt to the host cell's ncRNA regulatory schema.

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Four different ways for viral (v) ncRNAs and cellular (c) ncRNAs to interact in mammalian cells. A) shows vncRNA regulating virus; B) shows cncRNA regulating cells; C) shows vncRNA regulating cells; D) illustrates cncRNA regulating virus. Experimental evidence compatible with each of these four pathways exists in the published literature.
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Figure 2: Four different ways for viral (v) ncRNAs and cellular (c) ncRNAs to interact in mammalian cells. A) shows vncRNA regulating virus; B) shows cncRNA regulating cells; C) shows vncRNA regulating cells; D) illustrates cncRNA regulating virus. Experimental evidence compatible with each of these four pathways exists in the published literature.

Mentions: Recent experimental findings are, in fact, consistent with physiological use by mammalian cells of small ncRNA/RNAi to regulate viruses. First, three studies have converged to illustrate that small ncRNAs (siRNAs and piRNAs) are used in human and mouse cells to suppress the replication of endogenous retroviruses (i.e. retrotransposons) [27-29]. Second, bioinformatics and experimental results persuasively imply that mammalian viruses including HIV-1 are targeted by discrete human miRNAs [30-34]. Third, repression of mammalian Dicer enzyme was found to up regulate cellular replication of HIV-1 and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) [35-37]. One straightforward interpretation of the latter finding, which does not exclude others, is that the unrepressed mammalian Dicer-RNAi pathway normally acts to moderate HIV-1 and VSV replication. Finally, a KSHV viral miRNA (miR-K12-11) was identified as a viral orthologue of human miR-155 [38]. To the extent that miR-K12-11 targets KSHV- and cellular- sequences, then cellular miR-155 can be reasoned to act upon the same KSHV-sequence regulated by miR-K12-11. Indeed, pending the clarification of additional details, extant observations are consistent with the employment of ncRNAs by mammalian viruses to regulate viral functions, by mammalian cells to regulate cellular functions, by mammalian viruses to regulate cellular functions, and by mammalian cells to regulate viral functions (Figure 2).


Small non-coding RNAs, mammalian cells, and viruses: regulatory interactions?

Yeung ML, Benkirane M, Jeang KT - Retrovirology (2007)

Four different ways for viral (v) ncRNAs and cellular (c) ncRNAs to interact in mammalian cells. A) shows vncRNA regulating virus; B) shows cncRNA regulating cells; C) shows vncRNA regulating cells; D) illustrates cncRNA regulating virus. Experimental evidence compatible with each of these four pathways exists in the published literature.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2164956&req=5

Figure 2: Four different ways for viral (v) ncRNAs and cellular (c) ncRNAs to interact in mammalian cells. A) shows vncRNA regulating virus; B) shows cncRNA regulating cells; C) shows vncRNA regulating cells; D) illustrates cncRNA regulating virus. Experimental evidence compatible with each of these four pathways exists in the published literature.
Mentions: Recent experimental findings are, in fact, consistent with physiological use by mammalian cells of small ncRNA/RNAi to regulate viruses. First, three studies have converged to illustrate that small ncRNAs (siRNAs and piRNAs) are used in human and mouse cells to suppress the replication of endogenous retroviruses (i.e. retrotransposons) [27-29]. Second, bioinformatics and experimental results persuasively imply that mammalian viruses including HIV-1 are targeted by discrete human miRNAs [30-34]. Third, repression of mammalian Dicer enzyme was found to up regulate cellular replication of HIV-1 and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) [35-37]. One straightforward interpretation of the latter finding, which does not exclude others, is that the unrepressed mammalian Dicer-RNAi pathway normally acts to moderate HIV-1 and VSV replication. Finally, a KSHV viral miRNA (miR-K12-11) was identified as a viral orthologue of human miR-155 [38]. To the extent that miR-K12-11 targets KSHV- and cellular- sequences, then cellular miR-155 can be reasoned to act upon the same KSHV-sequence regulated by miR-K12-11. Indeed, pending the clarification of additional details, extant observations are consistent with the employment of ncRNAs by mammalian viruses to regulate viral functions, by mammalian cells to regulate cellular functions, by mammalian viruses to regulate cellular functions, and by mammalian cells to regulate viral functions (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Recent findings suggest that mammalian cells can use small non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) to regulate physiological viral infections.Here, we comment on several lines of evidence that support this concept.We discuss how viruses may in turn protect, suppress, evade, modulate, or adapt to the host cell's ncRNA regulatory schema.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Virology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0460, USA. yeungm@mail.nih.gov

ABSTRACT
Recent findings suggest that mammalian cells can use small non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) to regulate physiological viral infections. Here, we comment on several lines of evidence that support this concept. We discuss how viruses may in turn protect, suppress, evade, modulate, or adapt to the host cell's ncRNA regulatory schema.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus